Sunday, June 28, 2020

Controversial Book Review of Harari’s Sapiens

5 Errors in Sapiens (a Brief History of Humankind) Book Review Sapiens A Brief History of Humankind by Yuval Noah Harari is an ambitious attempt to explain in under 500 pages the manifold forces that transformed the unassuming genus Homo into the bodacious Homo sapiens. In the pursuit of this noble goal, the author presents his readers the smorgasbord of counterfactual conditionals – what could have and might have been. Although the speculative reconstruction of human history makes for an interesting read, it is anything but new. There are scores of books like Sapiens; however, unlike dull treatises written by Christian or crudely materialistic authors, Harari’s work has become an overnight success. Despite countless negative scholarly reviews of Sapiens, the book occupies millions of coffee tables around the world. Its popularity can be attributed to a simple reason, and that is simplicity. People love it. The author moves the plot of his swashbuckling story along using far-fetched and reductionists claims about the earliest human s and their surroundings. For example, in a manner similar to that employed by sensationalistic online publications, the author proffers that wheat domesticated ancient agrarians â€Å"rather than vice versa† (Harari, 2014, p. 79). There is little surprise, then, that the book has garnered a fair share of carping and harsh academic criticism. The aim of this paper is to review Sapiens and discuss its most egregious drawbacks and problems with Harari’s reasoning. The review will also address two questions: â€Å"What is the book Sapiens about?† and â€Å"What lessons does the book Sapiens give?† It will be argued that the history of sapiens eloquently recounted by Harari should be recognized for what it is: science-fiction rather than a serious scholarly work. Discussion for the Book Sapiens Raises Stinging Questions In the book, which is often found among college reading materials and lesson plans high school, the historian broaches the themes of geography, sociology, Christianity, in particular, and religion, in general. Naturally, Harari’s work is a welter of book club questions. To the author’s credit, it should be mentioned that research behind Sapiens book is immense; this fact notwithstanding, there are many issues with its application. Is Sapiens an authentic book on evolution? Hardly. Although many propositions put forward by the author are based in scientific evidences, the drawn conclusions are of dubious validity. For example, when trying to answer the question of â€Å"How did homo sapiens develop?†, Harari resorts to religion. No, he does not use religious teaching as a basis for his arguments. Instead, he echoes Genesis stories to illustrate relationships between evolution, humans and morality, as well as, pass judgment on the human race. Specifically, agricult ural revolution from Sapiens book reverberates with the story of Cain and Abel. The historian posits that the first agrarian who tilled the soil committed a crime the results of which are only overshadowed by that of animal husbandry. In an excerpt animal farming Harari asserts that the practice â€Å"might well be the greatest crime in history† (Harari, 2014, p. 112). He makes similarly sweeping moral judgments by comparing cognitive revolution to the original sin and the scientific revolution to the Tower of Babel. The writer bemoans certain aspects of the technological progress and their wider social implications. Specifically, he points to the blurred boundaries between therapeutic and enhancement applications of pharmaceutical drugs arguing against the latter. At the same time, Harari claims that ethical and moral frameworks are fundamentally fictional and should be regarded as such. If at this point, it is not abundantly clear why the book is not a convincing academic a nalysis, consider the author’s opinion on the information society: â€Å"irresponsible† and â€Å"discontented† â€Å"self-made gods† (Harari, 2014, p. 314). Such comments account for unfavorable reception by anthropology and downgrade the book to the science-fiction category. WRITE MY BOOK REPORT Is Wrong to Heed Sapiens Criticism? Is Sapiens accurate? No. The book’s flawed claims have been debunked numerous times. The large number of errors has been surpassed by the even larger number of negative responses to the book Sapiens. Academic critiques and controversy notwithstanding, it is wrong to call the Harari’s work bad. It seems that cynical readers leaving depressing reviews on Goodreads have been sidetracked by sensationalism and exaggeration and missed the author’s main point: the evolutionary arc is long, but it bends toward progress. And in his treatise, Harari makes strained efforts to point the yesterday’s nomadic tribes toward it. Even though a Brief History of Humankind critical book analysis exposes severe inconsistencies in the author’s reasoning, one should not be dissuaded by it. The book is overhyped, but it is extremely illuminating and mordantly funny, which is why it is still worthy of one’s time. Wondering â€Å"who can write me Sapiens book review criticism?† How about the author of this article? They will write you a powerful review in only several hours! GET BOOK REVIEW Sapiens Book Best Quotes Sapiens is awash with brainy quotes one could use to open a speech or cite in an essay. In one of many quotes on capitalism, Harari notes that the system is a social construct: â€Å"How do you cause people to believe in an imagined order such as Christianity, democracy or capitalism? First, you never admit that the order is imagined† (2014, p. 179). Another memorable Sapiens book quote on the matter is â€Å"money, social status, plastic surgery, beautiful houses, powerful positions – none of these will bring you happiness† (Harari, 2014, p. 184). BUY BOOK REVIEW PAPER

Saturday, May 30, 2020

Composing An Ethical Story Right And Wrong Behavior - 550 Words

Composing An Ethical Story: Right And Wrong Behavior (Essay Sample) Content: COMPOSING AN ETHICAL STORYStudents NameInstitutional AffiliationINTRODUCTIONEthics is an important tool needed in today's society. It is a branch of philosophy that involves defending, systematizing and recommending the concept of right and wrong behaviour. The term is derived from a Greek word Ethos which means custom, habit, character or disposition. Ethics covers the following dilemmas, how to live a good life, our rights and responsibilities, the language of right and wrong, moral decision based on what is good and bad.Ethical concepts are derived from religions, philosophies and culture. They infuse debate on controversial issues in contemporary society. They are grouped into four categories. The principle of respect for autonomy, stating that we have an obligation to respect the decision made by others concerning their lives, the principle of beneficence stating that we have an obligation to bring good in all our actions, the principle of nonmaleficence whereby we have an obligation not to harm others and the principle of justice where we have an obligation to provide others with whatever they are owed or deserve. Character is nurtured through ethical stories, fables, fairy tale, and currently, movies are an essential tool in promoting good morals in the society.NarrativeAt childhood ethical stories were given to instil a certain moral lesson that would help them even at old age. A lion lay asleep in the forest resting. A timid little mouse came upon him and in fear tried to get away but ran across lion's nose. Roused from his sleep, the lion tried to kill her. "Spare me" begged the poor mouse. "Please let me go and I will be in your debt". The lion was amused to think that the mouse would help him, but he let her go. Some day later while hunting, the lion was trapped in a hunter's net. Unable to free himself, he roared and mouse heard and recognized the voice. The mouse came to the lion's rescue and gnawed through the rope and soon the li on was free. "You laughed when I said I would repay you", said the mouse, "Now you know that even a mouse can help a lion."The moral of the story was kindness is never wasted. Every good deed has a way of getting back to us. Therefore the spirit of kindness has been deeply rooted in my culture of interaction with people. This has taught me how to live a right and harmonious life. Man is not an island and it's the virtue of kindness that brings us together and helps to deal with our daily life struggles.A young man went to apply for a managerial position in a big company. He passed the first interview, but the director wa...

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

JFK Assassination Essay - 2393 Words

JFK Assassination On Friday, November 22, 1963, while enroute to the Dallas airport, President John Fitzgearald Kennedy was fatally shot. ABCs newsanchor Walter Cronkite said that it would be a day that will live in infamy. The reason that that fateful Friday is still talked about is the controversy surrounding the assassination. The official investigators determined that the president was killed by a lone gunman, but every single piece of evidence Ââ€" from eye witnesses to forensic evidence Ââ€" points to at 2 or more gunmen, and a conspiracy, possibly involving government officials. According to the Warren Commission Report : Report of Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy, published in 1964,†¦show more content†¦The fact that reporters were allowed to be around Oswald as he was escorted out of court was plain irresponsibility on the part of the Dallas police. Public access to Oswald should not have been permitted under any circumstance. Oswald was murde red in front of cameras and video footage of the incident shows that the police didnt make Oswald being shot by Jack Ruby. hardly any attempts to prevent the murder, but literally just stood there. Many people have found this to be extremely suspicious. Some believe that Jack Ruby killed Oswald to silence him and the police were ordered to let it happen. If this is true, who were they taking orders from? Despite discrepancies such as these, for many years the American public had to be content with the Warren Commissions verdict that Lee Harvey Oswald had been the sole assassin in the murder of John Kennedy who died as result of three shots being fired from the Texas school depository building. However since the report was published on September 24, 1964, fresh evidence keeps surfacing, as does inconsistencies on the Warren Commissions part. There is a general feeling among conspiracy theorists is that the Warren Commission disregarded evidence if it contradicted their conclusion. They had been under immense pressure from the public to come to a verdict. At the time Oswald had seemed like theShow MoreRelated jfk assassination Essay1030 Words   |  5 Pages The John F. Kennedy Assassination On November 22,1963,President Kennedy was in attendance at a Dallas parade.One of the biggest tragic moments happened in U.S. history before the naked eye.President John F. Kennedy was assassinated around 12:34 he celebrated with the Dallas crowd to show admiration towards them and their city(Mintaglio 60).The suspected assassin Robert L. Oswald,a former U.S. marine,was afterward caught not long following the assassination in a near by theatre(Newman 56)Read MoreThe Assassination Of Jfk Assassination Essay917 Words   |  4 PagesJa’kel Lett Harley C . Ellison English 11 28 October 2016 JFK Assassination On November 22, 1963, was a sad day in the United States of America. The youngest president we ever had was assassinated .On elm street right in front of the Texas School Book Depository in Dallas, Texas . He was approximately shot at 12:30 p.m. The assassin was Lee Harvey Oswald . A Dallas Texas resident who was also a communist . He assassinated president Kennedy because he wanted to go back to Russia and take hisRead MoreAssassination Of Jfk s Assassination1140 Words   |  5 Pagesminutes after the assassination. There have been numerous debates over the last 55 years regarding this incident. Many people claim there is a conspiracy behind the case, allowing various conspiracy theories to emerge over the years. One specific theory is about how the mafia was involved with JFK’s assassination. In 1963, the USA Presidential elections were approaching and so JFK and his wife Jacqueline travelled to Dallas, Texas to campaign. On the day of JFK’s assassination, specifically theRead MoreThe Assassination Of Jfk Assassination Theory1385 Words   |  6 Pagesessay is the JFK assassination theory. I would like to research this because I have seen documents and videos online and on television about the conspiracy but I have not done full research into it to see the facts. With the presidents of the United States they are able to make or break the country with their decisions, with that JFK was assassinated due to that and other reasons. I will be going into this research thinking that there is a conspiracy behind the assassination of JFK that it wasn tRead More JFK assassination Essay1194 Words   |  5 Pages1:00 p.m. without regaining consciousness. Doctors said that Kennedy had no chance to survive when brought into the hospital. Governor Connally, although seriously wo unded, later recovered. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;President Kennedy, A.K.A. JFK, was in Texas to gain support for his re-election. Kennedy came to Texas accompanied by his wife and Vice President and Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson. The purpose of his trip was to heal a split in the Texas Democratic Party before the 1964 presidential campaignRead MoreThe Mystery of the JFK Assassination744 Words   |  3 PagesMystery of the JFK assassination The assassination of JFK affected the lives of many that were alive during his presidency and forever impacted history. His assassination is shrouded in mystery, and to this day no one knows exactly what happened. He was the youngest elected president, and the youngest president to die in office (The White House) JFK was a civil rights activist, because this was well known he had made enemies with many southerners in that time period. Despite these enemies JFK had madeRead MoreThe Incident Of Jfk Assassination983 Words   |  4 PagesThe incident of JFK assassination is one of the biggest events in the United States of America, and so many of myths and theories are discussed and examined by tons of people who are professional and amateur in any kinds of fields. Even if the Warren Commission adjudicated the JFK assassination was done by only Lee Harvey Oswald, there are significant amount of eyewitnesses that we cannot just ignore are testified and mentioned something about the second sniper which make the people believe thatRead MoreAssassination Of Jfk. In The Assassination Attempt On John1345 Words   |  6 PagesAssassination of JFK In the assassination attempt on John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States of America, on 22 November 1963 in Dallas, Kennedy (1917-1963) was fatally shot by Lee Harvey Oswald. As a suspect, Lee Harvey Oswald (1939-1963) was arrested and killed two days later by the nightclub owner Jack Ruby (1911-1967) in police custody. Kenny s successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald was the only culprit. A later convicted investigativeRead MoreThe Cia And The Jfk Assassination2430 Words   |  10 PagesThe CIA and the JFK Assassination The day November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, would soon become known as a tragic day in US history. John F Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States, had been drumming up support for the upcoming election. Tragically, he was brutally gunned down by Lee Harvey Oswald. At first glance, this assassination seems like a simple murder. A communist defector simply was angry with JFK and decided to kill him. Many people have failed to notice, however, that the CIARead MoreThe Cia And The Jfk Assassination1801 Words   |  8 PagesThe CIA and the JFK Assassination The day November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, would soon become known as a tragic day in US history. John F Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States, had been drumming up support the upcoming election. Tragically, he was brutally gunned down by Lee Harvey Oswald. At first glance, this assassination seems like a simple murder. A communist defector simply was angry with JFK and decided to kill him. Many people have failed to notice, however, that the CIA

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Sociological Issues On Social Issues - 1514 Words

When thinking about sociological issues taking place in our society today, issues concerning our environment commonly are not ones we put on the top of the list, however they should be. It is not that any of the other social issues do not matter, but without a world to live on, or an environment to live off of those other issues would not even be taking place. Our environment has been something that we neglect and carelessly use for our own personal economic growth because it is what has been done for many years. We are destroying our world’s land and using up its natural resources and are even wasting them without concern about what consequences are resulting from doing so. There are ways that we could fix and eliminate problems that we have caused to our environment, but in order to do so we will have come together and put in the effort to make the change and become more environmentally conscious in the aspects of our everyday lifestyles. Much of our world’s land is destroyed to provide for our growing population through the occurrence of deforestation which causes loss of biodiversity and soil depletion. There are natural causes of deforestation such as wildfires, but most of it occurs through urban development and most notably agricultural development. We destroy acres of forests in order to have more land for cattle and other farm animals to graze upon, but also to have land to produce grain that won’t be fed to us, but to the animals. It is also seen that a majority ofShow MoreRelatedSociological Perspectives On Social Issues957 Words   |  4 Pagesdifferent aspects of their personal life, however they don’t take into consideration the fact that sociological issues within that society may have also attributed to that problem taking place. C. Wright Mills (2010) believed that â€Å"neither the life of an individual nor the history of a society could be understood without understanding bothâ € , and with this in mind he came up with the concept of Sociological Imagination. This concept required people to think outside of the familiar routines of their dailyRead MoreSociological Imagination and Social Issues1251 Words   |  6 PagesSociological Imagination and Social Issues People are more likely to use psychological arguments to explain why things are they way they are rather than look at the sociological aspect of them. They think that problems happening in their lives are personal and overlook that they may be caused by society (Ferris amp; Stein 13). Sociological imagination challenges people to look at the â€Å"intersection between biography and history† and see the role we each play in society (Mills 1959 and Ferris amp;Read MoreConnecting Sociological Theory and Social Issues765 Words   |  4 PagesConnecting Sociological Theory and Social Issues Drug abuse is a topic of sociological significance because it is all around our daily lives whether we want it to be or not. Drug abuse today can influence or impact our family, community, and the economic and political life. Whether the drugs that are being abused are prescribed or recreational it can lead to bad consequences that the abuser may not have intentionally caused. It is also an important aspect to social life which sociologists canRead MoreConnecting Sociological Theory and Social Issues1046 Words   |  5 Pages| Connecting Sociological Theory and Social Issues | SOCS185 - Professor S. Izquierdo | | Education has been the key and structure of everyone’s life and future. Without education, where does one start to learn experience and evolve into a future of brilliance and success? Education, for the most part, is free and only requires the willingness to learn; however, once you get to the age and stage where you want to advance in a certain career or profession, money will be needed to furtherRead MoreThe Sociological Imagination And The Social Issue Of Child Abuse1492 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction The Sociological Perspective was a concept argued by C. Wright Mills was and still is a valuable tool to help people look at, understand and interpret their everyday lives and social world around them (in which they live). The argued perspective will be discussed through the use of the Sociological Imagination with the Personal Problem of Depression and the Social Issue of Child Abuse with what can be done to solve both of these ‘Dilemmas of Youth’. 2. 1. Sociological Imagination TheRead MoreThe Sociological Imagination and Understanding Personal Troubles as Social Issues1259 Words   |  6 PagesThe Sociological Imagination and understanding personal troubles as social issues: The Sociological Imagination allows us to question â€Å"things† or issues which are common and familiar to us and to find its deeper meaning. With the Sociological Imagination way of thinking, we find reasoning and uncover why many things in society are the way they are. The Sociological Imagination does not attempt to understand the individual and his or her problems alone, but focuses on issues and problems as itRead MoreThe Sociological Imagination And Me Essay1343 Words   |  6 PagesThe Sociological Imagination and Me Charles Wright Mills was a writer, a researcher, a teacher, a scholar and a well known sociologist. He was the author of the 1959 book, The Sociological Imagination. This book was poorly received by the sociological community at first, but it is one of the most widely read sociological texts today. The Sociological Imagination and Mills’ other works have had an immense impact on sociology, as he influenced many other scholars and the â€Å"New Left† movement of theRead MoreSociological Imagination And Its Impact On Society Essay1204 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction The sociological imagination is the point at which an individual perspectives his general public as the potential reason for his day-by-day triumphs and disappointments. People regularly tend to see their own issues as social issues and attempt to interface their individual encounters with the workings of society. The sociological creative ability tries to think of foundations for certain social patterns and gives a structure to fathoming the social world. Having a sociological creative abilityRead MoreSociological Imagination By C. Wright Mills969 Words   |  4 Pages C. Wright Mills defined sociological imagination as the awareness of the relationship between personal experience and the wider society. Understanding and being able to exercise the sociological imagination helps us understand the relationship between the individual and society. Mills focuses on the distinction between personal troubles and public issues. Having sociological imagination is critical for individual people and societies at large to understand. It is important that people areRead MoreThe Concepts Following Sociological Imagination675 Words   |  3 Pages In this essay I’ll be talking about Sociological Imagination and the concepts following it and more especially the importance of it. Sociological Imagination is one of the core concepts of Sociology whereas Sociology is all about studying people within the society and what they do. Sociologica l imagination is all about using one’s mind to see how people are affected by tangible and intangible things around them. Sociological imagination is affected by social forces which are forces that influence

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Rebellion In Animal Farm, By George Orwell - 999 Words

â€Å"’It is not crystal clear, comrades, that all the evils of this life of ours spring from the tyranny of human beings? ... What then must we do? Why, work night and day, body and soul, for the overthrow of the human race! That is my message to you, comrades: Rebellion!† (Orwell 9). In George Orwell’s Animal Farm, the animals living on Manor Farm became sick and tired of how poorly they are treated by Mr. Jones. They devise a plan, the Rebellion, to overthrow Mr. Jones and take over the farm. Their efforts are successful, and they overthrow Mr. Jones and start a new life, which they have high hopes for. Those hopes are destroyed when a power-hungry pig named Napoleon takes over and makes their lives just as bad, if not worse than they were†¦show more content†¦One of the major things that the animals were trying to get away from by starting the Rebellion was the animals being killed, and now, because they are so forgetful, they are acting just as Jon es did, and cruelly killing each other. Later in the novel, the animals are characterized as naive children, thus the past is repeated. Napoleon’s evil assistant, Squealer, told the animals that their former ally, Snowball was against them the whole time but â€Å"They all remembered, or thought they remembered, how they had seen Snowball charging ahead of them at the Battle of the Cowshed, how he had rallied and encouraged them at every turn, and how he had not paused for an instant, even when the pellets from Jones’ gun had wounded his back. At first it was a little difficult to see how this fitted in with his being on Jones’ side,† (Orwell 80). The animals are being manipulated by Squealer into thinking that Snowball was against them all along. Readers know that Snowball was truly the animals’ ally, but the animals are so naive, that they believe anything that Squealer tells them. Squealer is trying to tell them that Napoleon is good, just like they used to believe that Jones was good.Squealer then told them later that food production had increased by tremendous amounts â€Å"The animals saw no reason to disbelieve him, especially as they could no longer remember very clearly what conditions had been like before theShow MoreRelatedGeorge Orwell s Animal Farm And Ariel Dorfman s Rebellion Of The Magical Rabbits1893 Words   |  8 PagesBoth George Orwell’s Animal Farm and Ariel Dorfman’s Rebellion of the Magical Rabbits share the idea that people’s ignorance can contribute to their political and social oppression. These stories are both different, but at the same time are completely the same. The stories both have a different plot but have the same deeper meaning of ignorance leading to people s social and political oppression. George Orwell used real life experiences of when political leaders took over the Soviet Union and createdRead MoreSymbolism, And Imagery In George Orwells Animal Farm1165 Word s   |  5 PagesAs a boy, George Orwell felt as if he was alone. He described his school as split into distinct classes. â€Å"There are minority with an aristocratic or millionaire background, there were children of the ordinary suburban rich, who made up the bulk of the school, and there were a few underlings like myself†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (pg. 43 Orwell). Later on, he fought in the Civil War, and then went to become a radio announcer for World War 2. His life experiences inspired â€Å"The Animal Farm†. George Orwell integrated imageryRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of George Orwells Animal Farm923 Words   |  4 PagesAnimal Farm Character Analysis Essay â€Å"Old major†¦ was so highly regarded on the farm that everyone was quite ready to lose an hour’s sleep in order to hear what he had to say† (Orwell 1). The author, George Orwell, portrayed Old Major as the wisest of all the animals on the farm, and without being said, Major was a big part of Animal Farm. In fact, he influenced the lives of all the animals with just one speech. On the day of this speech, Major taught all the animals his wise ideas in a kind supportingRead MoreThe Works of George Orwell1347 Words   |  5 PagesGeorge Orwell How did George Orwell, an author who died over 50 years ago, suddenly rocket to the top of the best sellers list? George Orwell was able to show peoples all over the world about dangers that not only pertained to people of his time period but to multitudes of future generations. He used his literary knowledge to write books that were incredible influential in both their literary skill and the message they portrayed. George Orwell greatly influenced British society through his literaryRead MoreHow Is Marxism Portrayed in Animal Farm by George Orwell? Essay1369 Words   |  6 PagesHow is Marxism portrayed throughout ‘Animal Farm’ by George Orwell? The main aim of Marxism is to bring about a classless society, and ‘Animal Farm’ is generally considered to be a Marxist novel, as all its characters share a similar ambition at the beginning. ‘Animal Farm’ represents an example of the oppressed masses rising up to form their own classless society, whilst offering a subtle critique on Stalin’s Soviet Russia, and communism in general. Orwell is, ironically, revolutionary in hisRead MoreA Critical Review of Animal Farm Essay1643 Words   |  7 PagesA Critical Review of Animal Farm Once again, George Orwell shows his literary genius in writing. Through a brilliantly designed plot, the evidence for the horrors of totalitarianism, communism, and revolution have been shown. Throughout history, these types of events have destroyed societies, and George Orwell uses his strength in satire to show this. In someways, he even pokes fun at the communist regimes around the world by symbolizing them as animals. Truly, this book is not only serious inRead MoreSimilarities Between The Truman Show And Animal Farm965 Words   |  4 PagesThe texts Animal Farm by George Orwell and The Truman Show directed by Peter Weir examine the ideas of power, the good life and utopia. In the novel Animal Farm, Orwell narrates the progression of animals engaging in a rebellion against their owner, who mistreats them. In the Film, the Truman show, Weir chronicles the progressive advancement of Truman’s freedom, for the reason that he is trapped in a fantasy world. Both Orwell and Weir address the two texts in a similar way. The passages correspondinglyRead MoreElements in George Orwells Animal Farm861 Words   |  4 PagesAnimal Farm, written by George Orwell, depicts a group of animals who plot to destroy their master, Mr. Jones. The oldest and wisest pig on the farm, Old Major, told the other animals a story about a revolt called, The Rebellion. The pigs, which were considered to be the most intelligent of all the animals, devised a plan and successfully conquered Manor Farm. The animals ran the farm effectively, with the pigs overseeing and constantly developing new ideas. One pig, Snowball, was in favorRead MoreManipulation In Animal Farm, By George Orwell810 Words   |  4 Pagesstory of Animal Farm written by George Orwell, he successfully promotes manipulative behaviour through many of the characters. George Orwell strategically combines fiction with political satire which creates humorous criticism. He allows the reader to understand the mental and physical changes a person could go through living under totalitarian power. This controlling behaviour causes people to grow fearful and very cautious because of the constant worry for their safety. In the story of Animal FarmRead MoreAnimals Take Over in Animal Farm by George Orwell1370 Words   |  6 PagesIn the novel â€Å"Animal Farm† by George Orwell, the animals take over the farm and develop their own independent society. Just as it happened during the Russian Revolution of 1917. George Orwell underlies the tension between the oppressed and the exploiting classes between the condescending ideals and harsh realities of socialism. During the course of the literary piece by George Orwell makes it clear how the animals are mistreated by â€Å"Mr. Jones â€Å", because of this treatment they are receiving; Old

Gilgamesh Essay Paper - 728 Words

English 3, 4 7 October 2012 The Quest for Immortality In the â€Å"Epic of Gilgamesh† translated by N.K. Sanders, Gilgamesh completes a series of many challenges and obstacles, fulfilling the conditions of an archetypal quest story. In order to fulfill an archetypal quest story, the hero or protagonist must complete a series of hurdles, on their way toward achieving their goal. In the â€Å"Epic of Gilgamesh†, Gilgamesh hunts for his main obsession, immortality, while he battles off monsters, with the help of some friends. Sensing Gilgamesh embraces too much power, the gods create a friend for Gilgamesh named Enkidu in the hopes of lessening Gilgamesh’s power. Enkidu and Gilgamesh turn out to be best friends after Enkidu loses a wrestling match†¦show more content†¦When Gilgamesh rejects her advances, Anu directs the Bull of Heaven to attack Gilgamesh’s homeland, Uruk. Gilgamesh and Enkidu easily kill the Bull of Heaven which enrages the gods when they hear that the bull is dead. The gods make Enkidu become terribly ill, which kills him seven days later in a very painful death. Seeing his friend die, Gilgamesh obtains apotheosis and continues on his expedition of seeking immortality. Gilgamesh encounters Utnapishtim, a man who survives the great flood and receives immortality. Utnapishtim gives Gilgamesh eclectic tasks to achieve eternal life. The first task is to stay awake for seven days, which Gilgamesh is unable to accomplish. Feeling sorry, Utnapishtim tells Gilgamesh a secret that if he finds the â€Å"plant that grows under the water†¦ [it] restores his lost youth† (31). Gilgamesh lights up and ties rocks to his feet to sink down to search for the marvelous plant. Gilgamesh finds the ultimate boon. He is overjoyed and eager to bring the plant back to his homeland to restore the youth of all the men there. The refusal of the return occurs when, he was returning home and becomes careless and bathes in a nearby well of cool water, leavi ng the plant unattended. A snake suddenly appears and eats the plant, restoring the snake’s youth. Gilgamesh begins to weep upon seeing that he failed in his quest for immortality. Gilgamesh returns back to his homeland, Uruk, and engraves his story on a stone for everyone to see andShow MoreRelatedChoosing Fate Over Destiny in Othello and the Epic of Gilgamesh1062 Words   |  4 Pagesquotations or paraphrases from printed materials, websites, other students papers, or any other sources in my essay. By enrolling in this course, students give permission for their essays to be submitted to and analyzed by, a service employed by the University to identify and document plagiarism in order to ensure academic honesty. Choosing Fate Over Destiny Inside the story of Othello and the Epic of Gilgamesh, the leading characters fought with concept of handling fate and destinyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Epic Of Gilgamesh 1596 Words   |  7 PagesChristina Moore July 23, 2015 In the verse narrative The Epic of Gilgamesh the principal character Gilgamesh, King of Uruk, is described as a being that is two-thirds god and one-third man. Gilgamesh is a hero/protagonist who exhibits many more human features than divine features. This makes him a flawed hero because all humans are flawed. The Epic of Gilgamesh is the same type of story that is seen in the Old Testament. The story itself was found on stone tablets, written in the same time periodRead More A Jungian Analysis of the Epic of Gilgamesh Essay3198 Words   |  13 PagesAnalysis of the Epic of Gilgamesh   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This paper will provide a unique, psychological perspective on a timeless story that is alive with mythological and religious splendor. I must state clearly that this is not the first time that Gilgamesh has been viewed in the light of the philosophy of Jung.   One of two Jung essays I happened upon while preparing my research was the Psychology of Religion. Although I initially felt that this source would provide little help with my paper, I was very mistakenRead MoreWomen in Sappho and Gilgamesh1967 Words   |  8 PagesWomen in Sappho and Gilgamesh Works of literature are cultural reflections of the time and place in which they were created. At the times of the creation of the poems of Sappho and the Epic of Gilgamesh, women were primarily seen and little heard, unless they happened to be one of the ancient deities of that culture. Women were wives and mothers of children and their position in society was based on subservience to the patriarchy who were in charge in all things. Although women could achieve someRead MoreHuman Nature : Animal Nature2452 Words   |  10 Pagesnature. Each human has his or her own, unique natural tendencies and morals. Though this makes us all different from one another, it also makes us more alike because of this uniqueness. Through their unique traits and ideals, the characters from Gilgamesh, The Aeneid, Hamlet, and Freedom Writers all exemplify the best and the worst in human nature, and manage to meet somewhere in the middle of this modern understanding of human nature. The question concerning the goodness or badness of humans hasRead MoreThe Purpose of the Biblical Flood narrative1977 Words   |  8 Pagesit as a story and allow it to play on our imagination so that we discover its deep reality† (Woods 2014) whilst also taking into consideration the context and audience for which it was originally intended, to discover its theological purpose. This essay will not only address its overall theological purpose but also concentrate on the history associated with the narrative in regards to its origin using geographical reasoning, reference and com parison of similarities and differences of other culturalRead MoreThe Nature Of Love And Relationships Across The Many Works We Studied For This Course1942 Words   |  8 PagesThis paper will discuss the nature of love and relationships across the many works we studied for this course. Love can take many different forms, as we have learned this semester, and this drastically affects the dynamic of relationships across the board. This essay will explore female-dominated love, homosexual love, unrequited love and secret love and the affect this has on the characters relationships. Some relationships are quite strong and can withstand the specific dynamic their love hasRead MoreThe Movie Ramayan 1257 Words   |  6 PagesSachinbhai Patel Dr. M HUM – 121 July 16, 2015 Paper # 2 Movie- Ramayana This movie Ramayan is based on one of the great literature epic of India Called Ramayana, the other being the Mahabharata. Ramayana story transmitted orally for generations but not recorded until the eighth century B.C.E. It was written by the poet Valmiki. In this great epic story the main person was Rama who was an seventh incarnation of the Lord Vishnu who is the care take and protector of this world, Rama was like a BuddhaRead MoreAncient Kingship and Rulers Essay1475 Words   |  6 Pagesas people moved away from living in tribes. This was the case with the Jews when they have decided to unite under one ruler. However, long before them the first empire was established in Mesopotamia by Sargon of Akkad in 2334 BCE (Kelly, 2011). The essay will compare kingship in three geographically and chronologically different societies. They are the following: Babylonians during Hammurabi’s reign (1792-1750 BCE), Neo-Assyrians (934-610 BCE), and the Jews (1000 BCE). In order to avoid historicalRead MoreSituational Analysis: 7th Grade Language Arts6569 Words   |  26 Pageslearning about other creational myths. We explained to the parents, etc. that we are not promoting anything, etc. Principal is supportive with this. We have accommodated for them by allowing them to opt out of this lesson and in turn write a short paper describing their beliefs and the roots of where it got started Title of Course and Justification One very interesting aspect of the human experience is the manner in which certain themes appear again and again over time, in literature, religion

Chemical Earth Notes free essay sample

The living and non-living components of the Earth contain mixtures. Identify the difference between elements, compounds and mixtures in terms of particle theory. An mixture is an impure substance that is, a pure substance contaminated with small amounts of one or more other substances. An element is a pure substance which cannot be separated into other simpler substances. A compound is a pure substance which can be decomposed into simpler substances e. g. elements. Identify that the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere contain examples of mixtures of elements and compounds. The biosphere consists of atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere. The atmosphere contains mixture of gases, and mainly the mixture of nitrogen, oxygen and argon and contains small amounts of gaseous compounds e. g. water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. The lithosphere contains an extremely diverse variety of mixtures: rocks: compounds of silicon, oxygen, and many metals sand: mainly silicon dioxide and fine dirt soils: clays, aluminium, silicon, oxygen, metals and decomposing animal and vegetable matter mineral ores: oxides, sulphides, carbonates, sulfates, chlorides coal, oil and natural gas: mixtures of compounds or carbon formed from decayed plant and animal matter Elements: iron, gold, silver, copper The hydrosphere major component is the compound water with small quantities of elements such as oxygen and nitroge n and compounds such as carbon dioxide, sodium, calcium and magnesium chloride and sulphates. We will write a custom essay sample on Chemical Earth Notes or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Apart from dissolved oxygen and nitrogen the mixtures of the hydrosphere contain only compounds. Identify and describe procedures that can be used to separate naturally occurring mixtures of: solids of different sizes, solids and liquids, dissolved solids in liquids, liquids and gases. Separation of solids of different sizes: Solids of different sizes can be separated by sieving Separation of solids and liquids: Solids and liquids can be separated by filtration e. g. sand from sea-water. Sedimentation is also a process of separation, decantation (pouring the liquid off and leaving the solid at the bottom undisturbed) can be done after this. Separation of issolved solids in liquid: evaporation is a method used so that the solid is left while the liquid is evaporated. Separation of liquids: distillation can be used, it is the process in which a solution or mixture of liquids is boiled with vapour formed by being condensed back to a liquid in a different part of the apparatus, and thus separating. Fractional distillation can also be used if the boiling points of two liquids are clo se together. Separation of gases: Gases are generally separated by using either differences in boiling points or differences in solubilities in liquids such as water. Identify the industrial separation processes used on a mixture obtained from the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere or atmosphere and use the evidence available to: identify the properties of the mixture used in its separation identify the products of separation and their uses discuss issues associated with wastes from the processes used Separation of solids of different sizes: Solids of different sizes can be separated by sieving, separation of solids and liquids through sedimentation or decantation. Separation of dissolved solids in liquid by evaporating, separation of liquids with distillation or fractional distillation, separation of gases by using either differences in boiling points or differences in solubilities in liquids such as water. When separating salt water, that is sodium chloride (NaCl) and water (H2O), this will result in normal drinking water and table salt. 2. Although most elements are found in combinations on Earth, some elements are found uncombined Explain the relationship between the reactivity of an element and the likelihood of its existing as an uncombined element. The lower the elements reactivity the lower it is prone to react to another element, and this is because it only needs a minimum amount of electrons to become stable, meaning that it is already quite stable but not perfectly leading it not being that reactive and therefore staying as an uncombined element. Account for the uses of metals and nonmetals in terms of their physical properties. The common uses for metals such as iron, aluminium, copper and lead are for building materials, cars, planes, trains, machinery, electrical wiring, domestic appliances and household goods. It is the physical properties of the metals that most often determine which metal will be used for a particular product. The physical properties most commonly involved are melting point, density, electrical conductivity, hardness and tensile strength. The major uses of non-metals are as compounds. Wide ranges of compounds of non-metals are used in fuels, fertilisers, building materials, furniture, plastics, synthetic fibres, drugs, pesticides, paints, detergents, adhesives and cosmetics. Analyse information from secondary sources to distinguish the physical properties of metals and non-metals. Physical properties for Metals: Good electrical conductors and heat conductors. * Malleable can be beaten into thin sheets. * Ductile can be stretched into wire. * Possess metallic lustre * Opaque as thin sheet. * Solid at room temperature (except Hg). Physical Properties for Non-metals: * Poor conductors of heat and electricity. * Brittle if a solid. * Not ductile. * Do not possess metallic lustre * Transparent as a thin sheet. * Solids, liquids or gases at room temperature. Periodic Table: Semi-metals Semi-metals Non-metals Non-metals Naturally the substances that are liquids at room temperature (25 degrees) are mercury and bromine. The substances that are naturally gases at room temperature are oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, radon, fluorine and chlorine. The rest are solids. 3. Elements in Earth materials are present mostly as compounds because of interactions at the atomic level. Identify that matter is made of particles that are continuously moving and interacting. All matter is made up of small particles. In solids, these particles are packed closely together in an orderly array. These cause solids to have definite shapes and to be relatively hard. In solids the particles vibrate slightly. In liquids, the particles are arranged in a much less orderly fashion than in solids and they move about much more freely. Particles in liquids possess more motion—more kinetic energy, we say—and the forces between neighbouring particles are comparatively weaker than in solids. The motion of particles in liquids is not confined to vibration as in solids, but also involves random translation from one place to another in the bulk of the liquid as shown. In gases, the particles are much further apart than in solids or liquids, and they are in very rapid random motion. The particles are so far apart and moving so rapidly that there are no significant forces between them. Describe qualitatively the energy levels of electrons in atoms. Electrons in an atom exist in discrete energy levels which we call first, second, third and so on. Each of these energy levels can only accommodate certain amount of electrons. The first level only holds 2 electrons and second hold eight, the nth energy level is calculated by the formula 2n2 electrons. Describe atoms in terms of mass number and atomic number. Atoms are made up of electrons, neutrons and protons. The protons and neutrons stay in nucleus and the electrons orbit around them. The atomic number is described by the number of protons in the nucleus. The atomic mass number is the number of protons + neutrons in the nucleus of the atom. Describe the formation of ionic compounds in terms of the attraction of ions of opposite charge. Ionic compounds are formed because an atom that is not stable tends to give away a certain amount of electrons to become stable while the other electron needs to gain some to become stable. These two atoms give and accept, leading them to become an ion. Therefore there are strong electrostatic forces holding the ions together as ionic compounds. Describe molecules as particles which can move independently of each other. Particles are packed closely together in an orderly array in solids. In liquids they are arranged in a much less orderly fashion than in solids, and they move more freely, and in gases the particles are much further apart than in solids or liquids and are in a very rapid motion gaining more kinetic energy leading to the particles moving independently. As the particles move faster and further in distance the significant forces between them diminish. Distinguish between molecules containing one atom (the noble gases) and molecules with more than one atom. All elements wish to have a noble gas configuration that is to become stable. Elements in group 1 lose 1 electron to become a stable. Group tend to lose 2 electrons, Group 4 elements either lose 4 or gain 4 electrons. Describe the formation of covalent molecules in terms of sharing of electrons. Covalent bonds are formed between pairs of atoms that both need to form noble gas configuration. This is done by creating a covalent bond, and sharing the needed amount of electrons, satisfying and stabilising both atoms. . Energy is required to extract elements from their naturally occurring source Identify the differences between physical and chemical change in terms of rearrangement of particles. Changing the state of a substance, changing the physical appearance, dissolving the solid in a liquid and separating mixtures do not require any new substance to be formed. A change in which no new substances are formed is called a physical change. On the other hand, when change in which at least a new substance is formed, e. g. heating green copper carbonate to form a black solid and colourless gas, is a chemical change. Summarise the differences between the boiling and electrolysis of water as an example of the difference between physical and chemical change. The processes boiling water and electrolysing water are two very different things. Eletrocysing the water causes it to produce two new substances, hydrogen and oxygen gases whereas the boiling of water just converts it from liquid to vapour. The electrolysis of water is also very difficult to reverse and hence the difference between physical and chemical change is portrayed through these two processes. Analyse and present information to model the boiling of water and the electrolysis of water tracing the movements of and changes in arrangements of molecule. When boiling the water just changes its’ state from liquid to vapour, and the amount of vapour is equal to the amount of water, therefore there are no new substances made and there isn’t any rearrangement of particles. However, in electrolysis the particles are rearranged into hydrogen and oxygen gases, hence creating a chemical change. Explain that the amount of energy needed to separate atoms in a compound is an indication of the strength of the attraction, or bond, between them. The amount of energy that is required is directly proportionate to the strength of the attraction or bond, the energy it takes to separate atoms in a compound indicates the strength of the bond. The stronger the bond is the more energy it will take to separate. 5. The properties of elements and compounds are determined by their bonding and structure Identify differences between physical and chemical properties of elements, compounds and mixtures. Elements cannot be separated into simpler substance, and the physical properties of metals and non-metals are different. Compound is homogenous and is a pure substance that can be decomposed into simpler substances that is, elements. Compounds are at least two different atoms bonded together, therefore when separated the chemical properties are different. Mixture is an impure substance that is contaminated with small amounts of one or more other substances, physical separation techniques can separate the impurities from the purities. Distinguish between metallic, ionic and covalent bonds. Covalent bonds are between non-metals and consists of 2 or more atoms sharing electrons. A metallic bonding is between metals and aims to sustain a noble gas configuration. Ionic bonds are between both non-metals and metals where one atom gives or receives electrons from each other to become stable. Identify common elements that exist as molecules or as covalent lattices. Phosphorus and sulfur exist as covalent P4 and S8 molecules respectively. H2, F2, Cl2, O2 and N2 are diatomic gases and Br2 is a diatomic liquid while I2 is a diatomic. Describe metals as three dimensional lattices of ions in a sea of electrons. Metals are three dimensional lattices of cations in a sea of delocalised electrons and it is the attraction between the positive and negative metal ions. Describe the physical properties used to classify compounds as ionic, covalent molecular or covalent network. The physical properties to classify compounds as: Ionic are: High melting point No solid conductivity No liquid conductivity Flexible and brittle Covalent Molecular: No conductivity Soft and brittle Low melting points Covalent network has: High melting points No conductivity Hard and brittle Describe ionic compounds in terms of repeating three-dimensional lattices of ions. Ionic compounds are in the form of repeating three-dimensional lattices of ions, formed by the transferral of electrons. The positively and negatively charged ions are joined by electrostatic attraction. Choose resources and process information from secondary sources to construct and discuss the limitations of models of ionic lattices, covalent molecules and covalent and metallic lattices. The main limitations of models of ionic lattices is that sometimes the indicative features only applies a minor amount of elements or does not include all the necessary features and is predicted. The model does not apply to all ionic compounds, it only explains a small amount of ionic compounds. These limitations are similar to covalent molecules and metallic lattices.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

None Provided9 Essay Summary Example For Students

None Provided9 Essay Summary The meaning of Hacker is one who accesses a computer which is supposably not able to be accessed to non authorised people of the community. Hackers may use any type of system to access this information depending on what they intend on doing in the system. Hackers may use a variety of ways to hack into a system. First if the hacker is experienced and smart the hacker will use telnet to access a shell on another machine so that the risk of getting caught is lower than Ways in which the hacker will break into the system are:1) Guess/cracking passwords. This is where the hacker takes guesses at the password or has a crack program to crack the password protecting the system. 2) Finding back doors is another way in which the hacker may get access to the system. This is where the hacker tries to find flaws in the system they are trying to enter. 3) One other way in which a hacker may try to get into a system is by using a program called a WORM. This program is specially programmed to suit the need of the user. This programme continually tries to connect to a machine at over 100 times a second until eventually the system lets in and the worm executes its program. The program could be anything from getting password files to deleting files depending on The only way that you or a company can stop a Hacker is by not having your computer connected to the net. This is the only sure fire way in which you can stop a hacker entering your system. This is mainly because hackers use a phone line to access the system. If it is possible for one person to access the system then it is possible for a hacker to gain access to the system. One of the main problems is that major companies need to be networked and accessible over the net so that employees can do overdue work or so that people can look up things on that company. Also major companie s network their offices so that they can access data from different positions. One way which is used to try to prevent hackers gaining access is a program used by companies called a Firewall. A Firewall is a program which stops other connections from different servers to the firewall server. This is very effective in stopping hackers entering the system. Tho this is not a fool proof way of stopping hackers as it can be broken and hackers can get in. Tho this is a very good way of protecting your Some of the major hacks that have been committed have been done by young teens aged between 14 and 18. These computer geniuses as they are known have expert knowledge on what they are doing and also know the consequences. Tho the consequences do not really enter there mind when they are doing it. This hack occurred on February 10, 1997, and again on February 14, 1997 Portuguese hackers launched a political attack on the web page of the Indonesian government, focusing on that countrys continu ed oppression of East Timor. The attack was online for about 3 hours from 7.00 PM to 10.00 PM (Portuguese Time) at the web site of the Department of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Indonesia. The hackers did not delete or change anything. The said â€Å"We just hack pages†. Another major hack that occurred was on April 1 1981 by a single user. This hacker who was situated in an east coast brokage house was interested in the stock market. SO he purchased $100,000 worth of shares in the stock market. Then he hacked into the stock markets main computers and stole $80 million dollars. The hacker was eventually caught although $53 million dollars was not recovered. .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9 , .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9 .postImageUrl , .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9 , .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9:hover , .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9:visited , .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9:active { border:0!important; } .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9:active , .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9 .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud7b3bd205cb187a13d99bf3c90f8f9f9:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Harry Houdini EssayOn Wednesday, March 5 1997 The home page of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations was recently hacked and the contents changed. The group known as H4G1S. This group of hackers managed to The hacking group changed the webpage and left a little message for all. It said â€Å" Gr33t1ngs fr0m th3 m3mb3rs 0f H4G1S. Our mission is to continue where our colleagues the ILF

Friday, April 17, 2020

Placebos Essays (1376 words) - Clinical Research, Medical Ethics

Placebos Why we need placebos English/ History By Jj wallis A placebo is defined as an inactive substance resembling a medication, given for psychological effect or as a control in evaluating a medicine believed to be active. However the placebo only fits this description under the restraints it has been given by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which refers to the placebo as an investigational new drug. In actuality, up until the present much of medicine was built on placebos. Not very long ago, the rituals and symbols of healing constituted the bulk of the physicians armamentarium. In the early decades of the 20th century, most of the medication that doctors carried in their little black bags and kept in their office cabinets had little or no pharmacological value against the maladies for which they were prescribed. Nevertheless, their use in the appropriate clinical context was no doubt frequently beneficial.(Brown, 6) Even though placebos have been proven effective medicine time and time again the FDA remains reluctant to approve them for anything more than clinical research. The FDA stands on their disapproval of placebos as medicine on the basis that patients are to be given the best treatment available. Who is to say that a placebo is not as, if not more effective than the accepted remedy? There are an endless variety of cases that have proven placebos inconclusively effective. Among the most famous of these cases is the story of Mr. Wright, who was found to have cancer and in 1957 was given only days to live. Hospitalized in Long Beach, California, with tumors the size of oranges, he heard that scientists had discovered a horse serum, Krebiozen, that appeared to be effective against cancer. After Wright begged to receive the serum, his physician, Dr. Philip West, finally agreed and gave wright the injection on a Friday afternoon, not telling Wright that injection consisted only of water. The following Monday the doctor was astonished to find that the patient's tumors were gone. Dr. West later wrote the tumors, had melted like snowballs on a hot stove. At Tulane University, Dr. Eileen Palace has been using a placebo to restore sexual arousal in women who say they are nonorgasmic. The women are hooked up to a biofeedback machine that they are told measures their vaginal blood flow, an index of arousal. Then they are shown sexual stimuli that would arouse most women. The experiment then tricks the women by sending a false feedback signal, within 30 seconds, that their vaginal blood flow has increased. Almost immediately after they become genuinely aroused. In another case a study was carried out in Japan on 13 people that were extremely allergic to poison ivy. Each individual was rubbed on one arm with a harmless leaf and told that it was poison ivy and then rubbed on the opposite arm with poison ivy and told that it was harmless. All thirteen broke out in a rash where the harmless leaf had contacted their arm. Only two reacted to the poison ivy leaves. (Blakeslee, 2) In yet another example, patients with angina pectoris, chest pain, associated with heart disease, have been shown to improve substantially following an operation that involved nothing more than a simple skin incision. Angina also improved following a type of artery surgery once thought to be effective but later found to be ineffective. (Turner, 1) These are just a few of a great number of cases that prove the effectiveness of placebos. How do placebos work? There are many theories on how placebos work but really no definite answers. Many believe that the response to placebos is one of conditioning. That is that the site of a doctor, his white coat, the sterile smell, and a prescribed medication is equated with being cured, and because we think that we will get better we do. Some think that a placebo might reduce stress, allowing the body to regain some natural optimum level of health. Others believe that special molecules in the brain help carry out the placebo effect. A recent study found that stressed animals could produce a valium like substance in their brain if they have some control over the source of the stress. People must certainly share

Monday, April 13, 2020

Friend Essay Sample - How To Write Your Best Friend Essay

Friend Essay Sample - How To Write Your Best Friend EssayDo you need to write a friend essay or even a best friend essay? Do you need to make your friend feel special? Do you need to make your friend feel important?Well, how can you do that? Well, you need to write something personal, something that reflects your best friend in the best possible way. You need to write something to make your friend feel that you really care about their feelings and will always take them into consideration.Now, what is the most important thing when it comes to writing about your best friend? Well, you need to be someone that you can be your best friend with. You need to be someone that your friend will always love. When you write that you know your friend, you also get a feeling of sincerity in writing.Writing something personal is very important. Remember, it is a friend, a friend who knows you better than anyone else, who has been there for you through thick and thin. And you have to be a good friend to your best friend. So, always think of your best friend when you write about yourself.If you want to be truly honest when writing about your best friend, then you will need to think about why you two are friends. Be very honest about your reasons, and what you want your friend to do with you. This way, your friend gets a very good idea about what you really think about your friend.You will also have to consider the things that your best friend needs. You have to know the kind of things that they really want, so that you can satisfy those needs and wishes. This will help you write something that is not only true, but will make your friend feel special.As a writer, you will have to know how to make your friend feel special. One way to do this is to be your best friend's best friend. Being that your friend will always be your best friend, you will be sure to give your best friend the most special wishes that they want.A friend essay sample can help you write a really good friend ess ay. Of course, you will have to learn the ways of writing that makes your friend feel special. But the best way to be true and genuine about your friend is to be that way all the time.

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Quotes About the Myth of Reverse Racism

Quotes About the Myth of Reverse Racism In the 21st century, many white Americans feel that they suffer more race-based discrimination than their fellow Americans of minority backgrounds. A 2011 study by researchers at Tufts University’s School of Arts and Sciences and Harvard Business School found that whites believe that anti-white bias, or â€Å"reverse racism,† is at an all-time high. But is this perception accurate? Sociologists and social activists are among those who argue that reverse discrimination is actually not on the rise because it’s more of a myth than a reality. They say that while some people of color may be prejudiced against whites, they don’t have the institutional power to discriminate against whites in the systemic manner that whites have historically discriminated against racial minorities. Quotes about reverse racism from prominent social progressives explain why it’s far from widespread and why complaints about such discrimination are reactionary. They say that those who complain about reverse discrimination fear losing racial privilege as society moves to level the playing field. People of Color Lack the Institutional Power to Discriminate Against Whites In his essay â€Å"A Look at the Myth of Reverse Racism,† anti-racist activist Tim Wise discusses why he thinks U.S. society has been organized in such a way that people of color can’t oppress whites in the same way that whites have historically oppressed minorities. â€Å"When a group of people has little or no power over you institutionally, they don’t get to define the terms of your existence, they can’t limit your opportunities, and you needn’t worry much about the use of a slur to describe you and yours, since, in all likelihood, the slur is as far as it’s going to go,† Wise writes. â€Å"What are they going to do next: deny you a bank loan? Yeah, right. †¦ Power is like body armor. And while not all white folks have the same degree of power, there is a very real extent to which all of us have more than we need visvis people of color: at least when it comes to racial position, privilege and perceptions.† Wise elaborates on his argument by discussing how even poor whites have advantages over middle-class blacks. For example, poor whites are more likely to be employed and own property than blacks are largely because they don’t experience racism in the workplace and they’ve inherited property from family members. Blacks, on the other hand, have long faced barriers to employment and homeownership that continue to affect their communities today. â€Å"None of this is to say that poor whites aren’t being screwed†¦by an economic system that relies on their immiseration: they are,† Wise asserts. â€Å"But they nonetheless retain a certain ‘one-up’ on equally poor or even somewhat better off people of color thanks to racism. It is that one-up that renders the potency of certain prejudices less threatening than others.† Minorities Can Be Prejudiced, But Can They Be Racist? Sociologist Eduardo Bonilla-Silva labels the concept of reverse racism â€Å"nonsensical.† The author of Racism Without Racists remarked in a 2010 interview with website The Grio: â€Å"When whites talk about reverse discrimination, I feel that they are making a silly argument because what they really want to say is that we, people of color, have the power to do to them what they have done to us from the 13th century.† Bonilla-Silva says that some people of color are prejudiced against whites but points out that they lack the power to discriminate against whites on a massive scale. â€Å"We do not control the economy. We do not control politics - despite the election of Obama. We don’t control much of this country.† The Idea That Minorities of Influence Seek Revenge Against Whites Is Fiction Washington Post  columnist Eugene Robinson says that political conservatives make claims of reverse discrimination to advance the idea that people of color in influential positions are out to get whites. He wrote in a  2010 column  on the issue: â€Å"A cynical right-wing propaganda machine is peddling the poisonous fiction that when African Americans or other minorities reach positions of power, they seek some kind of revenge against whites.† Robinson asserts that not only isn’t this idea false but also that prominent conservatives are playing it up to win over white voters. He doubts that most conservatives actually believe that vengeful decision makers of color are using their influence to hurt whites. â€Å"Most of them†¦are merely seeking political gain by inviting white voters to question the motives and good faith of the nation’s first African American president. This is really about tearing  Barack Obama  down,† Robinson said. â€Å"These allegations of anti-white racism are being deliberately hyped and exaggerated because they are designed to make whites fearful. It won’t work with most people, of course, but it works with some- enough, perhaps, to help erode Obama’s political standing and damage his party’s prospects at the polls. Reverse Racism Denies the Minority Experience With Discrimination Bill Maher,  comedian  and HBO’s â€Å"Real Time† host, takes issue with reverse racism because it ignores the people of color continue to experience oppression today. Maher particularly objects to conservative Republicans making more of an issue of so-called reverse racism than they do of racism against minorities. In 2011, he  remarked, â€Å"In today’s GOP there is only one correct answer to the discussion about racism. And that is: There is no racism in America anymore.  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹Except  reverse-racism against whites.† Moreover, Maher points out that Republicans have offered up no solutions to combat reverse racism. He suggests that this is the case because reverse racism isn’t real. Instead, reverse racism functions to deny the racism that people of color in U.S. society have long endured. He explained, â€Å"Denying racism is the new racism. To not acknowledge those statistics, to think of that as a ‘black problem’ and not an American problem. To believe, as a majority of FOX viewers do, that reverse-racism is a bigger problem than racism, that’s racist.†

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Book Review . Discuss the process of maturation of Frederick Douglass Essay

Book Review . Discuss the process of maturation of Frederick Douglass from childhood to adulthood. Make sure that you employ a - Essay Example The first theme that manifests in Douglass’s narrative is that of inequality. African American slaves got treated cruelly by their slave masters who viewed them as not being human beings. He begins his narrative by stating that he was not aware of his birth date. He states that neither did he ever meet a slave who could tell his or her birth date (Douglass 1). Meanwhile, the white children could tell their birth date. This shows the inequality that slaves got born into. He narrates of how when his master died they got valued together with livestock as his family shared property. He states how slaves of all kind got ranked with sheep, swine, and horses (Douglass 51). This shows that slaves got viewed as equal to animals by their masters. This was a form of racial inequality. Another theme that manifests itself is that of the path to freedom. Douglass aims to show that he believes education and a progressive urban environment as the keys to freedom. He remarks that a city slave is freer than a slave on a plantation. He notices this when he gets moved to Baltimore, Maryland. He views a city slave as getting fed and clothed better than a slave on a plantation (Douglass 38). In spite of the decency accorded to the city slave, he later notes that there still was much injustice to the slaves whether in the city or plantation. Douglass also believes that education can play a key role towards the freedom of the slave. He strives to learn as much, but again the more he learns, the further he casts doubts on whether knowledge would earn his freedom. He remarks that the more knowledge he acquires, the more his eyes open to the endless evils of slavery (Douglass 47). When Hugh Auld forbids his wife from teaching Douglass, he realizes that this was a witty way through which slaveholders kept their slaves. Auld tells his wife that education ruins slaves. Douglass views that slaveholders hide knowledge from slaves to keep them unaware of the evil that is slavery. Dougla ss embarked on self-education as the key towards his ability to free himself. In his narrative, Douglass also shows the theme of Christianity. He highlights that there exists two forms of Christianity at the time; the real and hypocritical form of Christianity. According to him, there exists Christianity of the land and that of Christ (Douglass 95). Douglass believes the real Christianity gets practiced by him and the whites who preach against slavery. The hypocritical Christianity gets practiced by whites such as Mr. Covey who totally ignore and hide the real ideals of Christianity. He makes a distinction between the two by stating the real Christianity was based on charity and peace. The false Christianity revolves around the immoral and violent actions of slaveholders. Douglass, through his narrative, shows how the slaveholding masters in the south use Christianity to spread their evil deed of slavery. Conclusion The narrative by Douglass presents an emotional and quite moving st ory about his life as a slave until he becomes a free man. He is born a slave and recounts losing his mother at a remarkably young age. He encounters the brutality of slavery at a very early age when he witnessed his aunt Hester getting whipped. He undergoes harsh treatment and cruelty from his slave masters and whites while growing up. In spite of all this hardships, Douglass still manages to remain upbeat and pursue self education even when Mrs. Auld stops teaching

Monday, February 10, 2020

Lnternational Marketing of Coca Cola Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Lnternational Marketing of Coca Cola - Essay Example This study looks into Coca Cola Enterprises Limited that intends to introduce a new energy drink in Chile. The drink is Lucozade which is made by using Glucose Fructose Syrup, orange juice from Concentrate, Citric Acid and Sodium Benzoate. The company has already made the decision for the selling price by establishing a price which should not be more than 5% difference with existing drinks in the market. The packaging shall be done in both 275ml plastic bottles and 250ml cans. The company intends to Launch Lucozade brand in Chile. Most of the consumers are health conscious and prefer the low calorie energy drinks. The promotional activities will include endorsements by sports personalities and mass advertisements. The company has set enough financial resources for the operations and timelines for the execution of the marketing plan. The marketing organization includes the chief marketing director, the territory directors, the area directors and the public relations personnel. A situa tional analysis is the foundation of the marketing plan. The situational analysis will include a thorough examination of the internal and external factors which affect the introduction of Lucozade drink in Chile. It will enable Coca Cola to understand the factors which will influence the market growth in the future. Internal analysis will consider the strengths and weaknesses of Coca Cola enterprises Limited. The internal analysis will consider the company culture and image, the staff, the operational efficiency and capacity. (Kotler 2010). The internal analysis will also consider the weaknesses which hinder the launch of the Lucozade drink in Chile and which may impair the growth in market share and profitability. The external analysis will evaluate the suppliers, the trade partners, customers, new technology, competitors and the economic environment prevailing in Chile which may enhance the operations of Coca Cola Enterprises Limited in Chile (Dibb, Simkin, Pride and Ferrell 2005) . The external analysis will also consider the treats which exist in the market which could curtail the achievement of the Coca Cola Enterprises objectives in Chile. 2.1 Market Summary Coca Cola Enterprises Limited is the world’s largest bottler of non-alcoholic drinks by volume. The company produces, sells and distributes its drinks using a wide distribution channel which covers all the continents in the world (Kotler 2010). Coca Cola Company is the largest bottler for the Coca Cola Company since it produces 20 percent of the entire Coca Cola drinks world wide. 85 % of its products are classified as carbonated soft drinks while the rest are non-carbonated soft drinks. The company annual revenue was $ 21.65 billion in 2009 while the net income from its operations was $ 731 million. 2.1.1 Market demographics This section of the marketing plan will include analyzing the customers in terms of the demographic features such as the age, the race, gender, educational attainments, ma rital status, income levels, attitudes and beliefs, and the household size. Chile population comprises of 15,166,500 people but the population has been on the decline due to controlled birth rate. It is estimated that the population is likely to hit 20 million people by 2050. About 80 percent of the populations live in urban areas with the population mainly concentrated in Greater Santiago. Chile population consists of all races including European and Indians. The most dominant religions are Roman Catholics and Evangelical (Kotler 2007). Spanish is

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Hit and Run Sports and Lesiure Company Essay Example for Free

Hit and Run Sports and Lesiure Company Essay * The company provides wide range of sports and leisure facilities to members and non-members. The facilities include golf courses, football pitch, basketball court and swimming pool. Members have to book to use facilities and bill is charged to their account. * The leisure clubs shop provide to customers wide range of sports goods such as clothing, golf clubs and tennis racquets. For members there is 10 % discount. * The club provides qualified coaches for different sports that can be booked to give lessons to individuals or groups. The fee is charged for each lesson and the company receives half of the fee. Types of members Type of membership Description Individual They are any one of the ages from 16 to 60, who are not students, under corporate or affiliated team member. Student This membership is available to anyone over 16 and under 25 years of age who is in full time education. Senior For elderly people who are over the age of 60. Corporate For nominated employees from a company who has account with the leisure centre. Family This is available up to 2 adults and 4 children. Children who are under the age of 12 can only join the club as part of a family membership. Affiliated team Available to local sports teams. It allows them for priority bookings and discount rates for regular bookings. Functions of each department within the clubs The club shop The primary function of the shop is to sell sports equipment. However the sales assistants are also responsible for replenishing the stock on display from the stockroom. Also the shop can take bookings for the facilities. They hold all their stock items details and quantities on the database. When a member purchase an item, the item code is typed in and the description and the price is displayed on the screen. Also the members number is entered from their membership card. This allows them to identify the member and available discount is automatically calculated. The shop also allows members to pay through their account, cash, cheque or credit card. If credit card is used, the Sales assistant has to contact the credit card Company, usually by telephone, to check the credit availability. Receipt is issued when the sale is complete and the appropriate stock item quantities are decreased. The Sales manager is responsible for regulating the stock of all equipment. The sales manager has to make sure that the quantities are up to the required levels. If there is a shortage of any equipment, the database automatically produces a report. This operates at the end of each working day. The following day, the Sales manager telephones the appropriate equipment suppliers and orders the equipment required. The confirmed purchase orders are printed and sent by post. The shop also has specially printed carrier bags for customers purchases. The design of the bag changes every year however it always includes the Hit and Run name and logo. Every year the Sales and Marketing Director negotiates a new order for bags for all clubs. Administration The administration manager handles all applications for membership with the help of assistant. The administration assistants are responsible for all office procedures within a club. They produce and post out all correspondence from the club such as letters to members. They also produces invoices for goods and services. One of the administration assistants is responsible for updating the members details on database and also ordering membership cards. The summary of all membership transactions which include new members, bookings and membership renewals, is sent to Head office on a floppy disk. The floppy disk also contains information about financial summaries for shop sales, membership and booking fees and lastly a summary of all purchase orders raised. Administration assistant sends all the invoices received by suppliers on the goods received or service done, to head office. This is done at the end of each week. Head office then deals with the payment. Most important function of Administration department is keeping records of the hours worked by each member of the clubs staff along with any coaching fees received. The information is sent to the Human Resource department in head office. The human resource department deals with the information so that wages due can be calculated and paid. Reception Reception department deals with bookings. When a member books facilities, receptionist take member number on a booking login screen together with expiry date on the card. The members details are displayed on the screen. Receptionist asks for members address and name. When it is confirmed booking screen is displayed. The members number is copied onto the booking screen. Also code for facility, the date and the start time is required. The booking system then checks the availability of the facility and if it is the booking is confirmed. Then a booking card is produced containing the information to the member. Reception also deals with members checking in. The member provides the receptionist with the booking number. The details of the booking are displayed on the computer when the booking number is typed in on a check in screen. The receptionist checks and allocation of the facility is confirmed. Then another card is printed for the member. This confirms that the facility has been booked. Facilities maintenance The facilities manager deals with maintenance of all the buildings and facilities in the club. Outdoor facilities such as pitches and the golf course are maintained b a team of green keepers. A team of maintenance staff maintains the indoor facilities and the structure of the buildings. The facilities manager must schedule regular maintenance. This will reduce the chance of members disruption on using facilities and also to make efficient use of available staff. The manager also contacts contractors from outside the club for tasks such as the servicing or repair of mowers, rowing machines and other equipment. Once a month the manager contacts suppliers for cleaning materials. Coaching Qualified coaches provide lessons for each of sports. They provide this service to groups or individuals. They also supervise the use of club facilities. The head coach is responsible for ordering sports equipment needed such as tennis balls, shuttlecocks, nets or racquets. This is sent off to the suppliers by fax. Suppliers to the club and relationship between these suppliers and the department/individuals within the company * Sports equipment retailers They provide stocks for the shop in the clubs. The sales manager phones the suppliers when there are shortage of equipment. They also provide equipment for the coaching department. * Card Company They provide membership cards for the administration department. The administration assistant sends the details of the membership card. * Cleaning material suppliers They provide cleaning materials to the facilities maintenance department. The facilities manager places the order. * Maintenance equipment service The service is provided for repairing or servicing mowers, rowing machines and other equipment for facilities maintenance department. Facilities manager also places the order. * Carrier bag suppliers They provide carrier bags for the sport shop. The sales manager and marketing manager change the design every year. The supplier provides yearly allocation. * ICT service and suppliers The club uses ICT facilities. There are computer workstations at the main desk, in the sports shop, administration office and the General Mangers office. They need software, which hold data for all sports equipment in sports shop. Also for membership database and booking data. The ICT suppliers along with ICT department in head office supply this.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

American History :: History of America

The Space Race The goal of Apollo 11 was to send men to the moon, this goal was set by jfk in the year 1961. they landed on the July 20th 1969. The men who were aboard the ship were Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin and Michael Collins. These men were (other than Collins) the first people to ever to walk on the moon. The event was televised to millions of American homes. There were also three backup crew members who didn’t go into space: James Lovell, Fred Haise, and William Anders. The crew conducted many science experiments as well as leaving an american flag on the moon. The flag has since been bleached white by the suns unrelenting power. The first man on the moon is so important to the history of America because it solidified the country as a superpower. If Russia had beaten America to the moon, they would been the country to reach that pinnacle of space science. It also would have crushed the hopes and dreams of Americans young and old alike. With the US and Russia locked in the cold war, the American people needed a confidence boost, and they got it when they won the space race. 1st Black President In election of 2008, the candidates running were Barack Obama and John McCain. Obama won, making him the first African American President in American history. Throughout history African Americans were treated as lesser to whites and Obama overcame those stereotypes and became president. There was some speculation that Obama wasn’t actually from America, but these were put to rest when he released his birth certificate. Some issues during the election were the war in Iraq, economic downturn, and LGBT issues. American history is full of examples of minorities such as blacks being kept down. Slavery was a huge black mark on the nation’s history. It is one of the main factors for racism toward African Americans in our culture. Blacks were often seen and treated as lesser people, and having a president who is part of this minority is huge step forward in racial equality. since Obama was elected there have been more black candidates running for office. Nuclear bombs The conception of the nuclear bomb began when Albert Einstein wrote FDR a letter concerning the weapons and how powerful they had the potential to be. On July 1945 The first bomb was tested, and the scientists were pleased with the result of the test.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Contract manufacturer Essay

Executive Summary: Danshui Plant No. 2 in southern China is a contract manufacturer that assembles electronic products and has a one-year contract with Apple Inc. to assemble 2.4 million iPhones. Monthly production target for DC is 200,000 units but in the first three months of the contract, the plant is unable to assemble as many phones as expected and is operating at a loss. Wentao Chen, manager of Danshui was anxious on reviewing the monthly operation’s performance of august as in the third month of the contract, production was only 180,000 units. The plant has had difficulty hiring enough workers despite raising wages over 30%. Issues: 1. Assembly process for an iPhone is complicated. 2. Danshui has underproduction. 3. There is a lack of qualified labor. 4. Insufficient information to train their workers. 5. Insufficient experience to manage operations. Requirements: 1. The plant manager considers whether a flexible budget would be more useful for uncovering problems than the static budget currently being used. 2. Need to perform breakeven and flexible budget analyses and calculate price and usage variances as they consider solutions for the plant’s problems with the iPhone contract. 3. What should be the total expected cost per unit if all manufacturing and shipping overhead (both variable and fixed) were allocated to planned production? What was the actual cost per unit of production and shipping? 4. To suggest as to how Apple iPhone 4’s would have been have to have been completed for Danshui Plant No.2 to break. 5. What are some strategies or decisions that Wentao Chen should consider in trying to solve the problems with the Apple iPhone 4 contract in the next nine months, how these would change the costs and profitability of Danshui Plant No.2 and the iPhone 4 contract. Hypothesis: It is expected that the contract price should be raised in order to be profitable as variances observed in the analysis suggest cost overruns and  lack of production handling & control while damages are also observed in material handling. Thus DC is expected to cover efficiency of its production while reducing loss / damages to materials. Suggestions and recommendations: 1. The most cost effective way to boost up production level under same capacity. 2. Motivate employees’ morale and concern their welfare. 3. Achieve learning curve effect under well-organized OT plan. 4. Mix balance strategy is advised: Over time schedule plan plus pay for performance policy. Alternative Strategies: 1. Over time schedule plan 2. Cellular manufacturing 3. increase wages 4. pay for performance policy 5. Outsourcing

Monday, January 6, 2020

Positive and Negative Results of The Black Plague - 847 Words

The Black Plague, perhaps one of the worst epidemics in history, swept its evil across Europe in the middle of the 14th century, killing an estimated 20 million people. This major population shift, along with other disasters occurring at the time, such as famine and an already existing economic recession, plunged Europe into a dark period of complete turmoil. Anarchy, psychological breakdowns, and the dissipation of church power were some of the results. As time passed, however, society managed to find new ground and began its long path of recovery. The plague, as catastrophic as it was to medieval Europe, had just as many positive effects that came with this recovery as it did negative effects prior. An end to feudalism, increased wages†¦show more content†¦New society brings new generations of people, with new heads and new ideas, all of which played a factor in the technological innovations after the plague. The plow is such an example, improving in the late Middle Ages and greatly increasing agricultural productivity, which in turn helped sustain a population increase. One of the most unique inventions of the time was the clock, which historian Lewis Mumford identifies as the â€Å"key machine of the modern industrial age† (cite). The clock presented a means for organization, efficiency, and a new experience and view of time. Lens grinding, gunpowder, and new printing technologies presented a window of opportunity for post plague Europe. With printing technologies came an increased literature rate. This, along with lens grinding, which created the ability to make telescopes, brought the beginning of philosophy. As beneficial as these new technologies have been, all of the innovation that came after the plague has not had as great an impact as the church, its power struggle, and the separation of church and state. Before the plague, the Church had complete control over society in Europe and was the absolute worldview for people of that time. The devastation of the disease left many looking for answers, generally from the church, but the church was in no position to help. As church officials fled, it angered those who once had faith, leading to the steady decline of the authority of the church. At oneShow MoreRelatedThe Black Death : The Black Death Of The 14th Century868 Words   |  4 Pagesits based on the Black Death. A disastrous plague of the 14th century, the Black Death took the lives of 75 million (History) throughout central Asia and Europe (Wein). Introduced first by rats from Crimea, the plague spread through rats, human contact, and even the air. The nickname Black Death is attributable to the dark blotches that covered victims, due to the damage to underlying skin and tissue (Wein). 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