Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Tracking Legislation in Northern Virginia (ie Fairfax, Arlington, Essay

Tracking Legislation in Northern Virginia (ie Fairfax, Arlington, Alexandria) (Issues Transportation, Immigration, Guns, Taxes) - Essay Example The bill also removes a subsection that makes offenses in the rest of the section secondary offenses. This bill simply means that Virginia drivers ages 15, 16 and 17 will not be able to talk, send text, messages or snap photos with a phone while driving on Virginia roads. This ban, designed to reduce accidents, also will apply to hands-free devices but will allow teens to use a phone during an emergency. This HB 942 affects me and all the young road drivers who pass by the highways and roads of the State of Virginia. The bill puts a limit on the number of passengers one can bring with and it also institutes a driving clinic for errant young drivers. The first major provision of the bill states that "whenever the driving record of a person less than 19 years old shows that he has been convicted of committing, when he was less than 18 years old, (i) an offense for which demerit points have been assessed or are assessable under Article 19 ( 46.2-489 et seq.) of this chapter or (ii) a violation of any provision of Article 12 ( 46.2-1091 et seq.) or Article 13 ( 46.2-1095 et seq.) of Chapter 10 of this title, the Commissioner shall direct such person to attend a driver improvement clinic." The second major provision states that "If any person less than 19 years old is convicted a second time of committing, when he was less than 18 years old, (i) an offense for which demerit points have b een assessed or are assessable under Article 19 ( 46.2-489 et seq.) of this chapter or (ii) a violation of any provision of Article 12 ( 46.2-1091 et seq.) or Article 13 ( 46.2-1095 et seq.) of Chapter 10 of this title, the Commissioner shall suspend such person's driver's license or privilege to operate a motor vehicle for 90 days. Such suspension shall be consecutive to, and not concurrent with, any other period of license suspension, revocation or denial. The initial license issued to any person younger than 18 years of age shall be deemed a provisional driver's license. Until the holder is 18 years old, a provisional driver's license shall not authorize its holder to operate a motor vehicle with more than one passenger The general public is helped positively by this new bill since it reinforces the importance of road safety among Virginia' young drivers. The bill has a negative impact on young drivers since they have to forego the convenience of using wireless devices while driving. However, if one takes the importance of road safety at heart, the young people also benefit in terms of lives saved and the preservation of private property arising from damage due to potential road accidents. The main goal of a traffic safety program is dedicated to saving lives and reducing injuries by preventing traffic crashes in Virginia. The aim is the maximum protection of the driving public. The success of these efforts is seen in the number of lives saved and the injuries prevented. Traffic fatalities were identified as the leading cause of death, especially for young people between the ages of four and 34. The "years of life lost" as a result of these terrible events make their social costs particularly high. Many of these tragic losses of lives could have been prevented with better traffic safety bills. Virginia Governor Timothy M. Kaine wants more traffic safety bills in order to reduce accidents and injuries due to erring drivers. Traffic safety is an important issue since Virginia had suffered from many traffic accidents which had resulted in the loss of many lives. For instance, Virginia's 2004 rate of 1.17 fatalities per 100 million vehicle-miles of travel was lower than the national average of 1.44 per 100

Monday, October 28, 2019

Conducting Scholarly Research Essay Example for Free

Conducting Scholarly Research Essay Conducting Scholarly Research The following tutorials and information are mandatory, though no assignment is required to be submitted. The skills developed in these tutorials will be used throughout the nursing program. Evaluating the resources you use One of the major challenges today, with the sheer amount of information available at your fingertips via the Web, is determining the reliability of the information presented. It can be quite difficult to determine the quality, authenticity, and authority of the information you encounter. However, there are a number of tools and skills at your disposal that help to determine if the information you find is trustworthy and of academic quality. Watch the Evaluating Websites tutorial to learn more about how to determine the quality of information found on the Web. Review the tutorial: â€Å"Evaluating Websites,† located at What makes a resource scholarly? Throughout your courses at GCU you will be encouraged to use scholarly resources to support your assignments and discussion questions. But what is a scholarly source? Simply put, a scholarly source is a resource or research created, published, and or written by scholars and professionals in a specific discipline. In addition, a scholarly source should have undergone rigorous fact checking and peer review to ensure the research and information presented is of strong academic quality. The bulk of scholarly resources can be found in books and academic and/or professional journals. A large majority of these are research based. A scholar or professional may publish articles in other resources, such as in magazines, newspapers, and even Web sites and blogs. However, these sources do not go through the rigorous fact checking that is expected from scholarly journals. This rigorous fact checking is called peer review. When a scholar or professional submits their article to be published the journal will send the article to another expert in the field to review the work. The reviewer will look to see that the quality is high, the research sound, and the  conclusions in line with the work presented. If it is approved, it will then be published in the journal. This process gives students like you the added confidence in the resource being used. How to find Scholarly Research The Web is filled with information and resources. It is possible to find scholarly articles and research on the Web. However, most will ask that you pay a fee to read the article. The GCU library has subscribed to a number of the journals so that you do not need to pay to read the research. These journals and articles are contained in collections called Databases. Some are multidisciplinary, but most are specific to a subject area. For instance, in nursing, the strongest databases include CINAHL, OVID, and the ProQuest Nursing Allied Health Source. These can be found on the Nursing subject page in the GCU library. Watch the â€Å"GCU Library Walk Through Tutorial† to learn how to access the library and its vast resources. The â€Å"GCU Library Walk Through Tutorial† is located at Watch the CINAHL Tutorial to learn more about how to specifically use this nursing specific database. Pay special attention to the section discussing subject headings. Learning to use tools like these will help you design effective search strategies and significantly reduce the time and frustration that comes with research. The CINAHL Tutorial is located at The GCU library has a number of Librarians and staffed trained specifically to assist you with your research. Please contact them if you have questions or concerns with finding information. They can help walk you through the technical aspects of using a database and assist in developing search strategies that will enable you to find the information you need. Call them at 800.800.9776 ext. 6396641 or email them at using the form at Scholarly Writing Writing will be a large part of the work expected in this program. Scholarly writing can often be intimidating, but there are a number of resources GCU has provided to ease this strain and help you learn to write good scholarly papers. A key to scholarly writing is using evidence to support your arguments. The skills you learn as a researcher will aid you in your writing. The purpose of education is to build your knowledge and the purpose of academia is to contribute to and build the knowledge of the culture as a whole. By taking the research and writings of others and evaluating and adding it as essential pieces of your own research, you then move the knowledge of both yourself and the community to the next step. To enable this process, it is essential to cite where the information is found that is used in your papers. This is why scholars use citation styles, such as APA, to standardize how this is done and allow others to easily follow from where the information has come. This is, of course, in addition to the ethical reasons that argue that one should be acknowledged for the work that is done. Watch the tutorials below to learn more about scholarly writing and what resources are available to you. The Writing Center, located in the Student Success Center Writing in APA Tutorial Plagiarism Tutorial LoudCloud Tutorial The Writing Process Tutorial The Center for Learning Advancement has a number of staff and tutors available to assist you in your academic writing. In addition they have a number of resources available at the click of a button. Find out more at

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Effective Use of Symbolism in Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby Essay

The Great Gatsby is one of the finest pieces of literature written in the 20th century. It explores the nature of westerners during hardships and other social problems. The Great Gatsby is not just a mere historical novel from 1920’s. Fitzgerald gives a great in depth analysis of the lives of ordinary people through the characters and the symbols in this book. Through these characters and symbols Fitzgerald portrays on the lack of moral and spiritual values of the people and different aspects of the society. One of the three of main symbols used in Great Gatsby is the valley of ashes. â€Å"Immediately the ash-gray men swarm up with leaden spades and stir up an impenetrable cloud, which screens their obscure operations from your sight† (Fitzgerald 23). This gray land suggests the ignorance and careless ness of the wealthy during the 20th century. All these rich ever dreamed about was their growth rather the growth as a nation. This use of symbolism illustrates the vast amounts of unexplored real world by the rich, and how they always live in their own circle of people believing that money is the only thing in this world. The other side of this symbolism is the reality of the lives of people, for example Mr. Wilson, helpless, he passed his long life in his garage with his unhappy wife, and how the rude arrogant behavior of the rich in the end turned him into a murderer. This indicates that how the rich people like Tom acted as a barrier. These people oppressed the poor the whole time, and did not even give them the opportunity to grow in their status rather used their hopelessness for their own desires. On the contrary to the above symbol, the next symbolism depicts the goal and future based of a human being, which is the green ... ... the injustice; in this story the wealthy. Mr. Wilson looking at the billboard claims, â€Å"god sees everything† (Fitzgerald 160). Only poor and honest people like George Wilson could see god. This explains the blindness of the wealthy and how god favored only ethical people. Fitzgerald suggests that everyone is accountable to god and even though it may seem that nobody is watching you that moment, there is always a spiritual power recording all your sins. The author brings about this suggestion as a warning to the people, and explains how the people were not aware of this caution during the 1920’s. The rich were deeply immersed in the ocean of wealth and were not able to swim their way out. In conclusion, Fitzgerald clearly sums up the problems that people face through his effective use of symbolism. He also reveals many interesting facts about the lives of people.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Stephen King’s Biography Essay -- american authors, the stand

Stephen King was one most of the popular American authors in history. He was born in Portland, Marine on Sept 21, 1947. He was raised by his mother, Nellie Pillsbury, and his father, Donald King. Today, Stephen King and his wife, Tabitha King, are living in Florida. â€Å"He and Tabitha Spruce married in January of 1971. He met Tabitha in the stacks of the Fog Library at the University of Maine at Orono, where they both worked as students.† (King) He published his first horror novel while study at the University. â€Å"While at college, King supported his education and family’s hard pressed finance by taking small jobs and selling stories to various magazines.† During his early career, he was famous for a series of horror novel called, â€Å"Dark Tower Stories†. In the late 1990s, he was injured by a car crash which resulted in a very bad condition in his leg and lung, too (â€Å"Stephen Edwin King†). Now, he and his wife support local community charities and a scholarship for local high school students in Florida (King). Stephen King show of his life where it has influences of his writing and how it did impact many people. King’s fascination with honor of fact his writing throughout his career. The first evidence of Stephen King being very interest in horror showed in his work in his early education (â€Å"Stephen Edwin King†). He read a scary comic book which affected how he wrote (â€Å"Biography of Stephen King†). â€Å"Much of King’s early works were science fiction based, but because he lacked the scientific grounding, they tended to be a bit thin on detail, but still excellent for someone of his age.† Later, he combined science fiction and fantasy in his writing to have more eff... ...21006/Top- ten-Stephen-King-books.html>. King, Stephen. "The Stand." Goodreads Inc, 11 Feb 2014. Web. 11 Feb 2014. . King, Tabitha. "The Author." Stephen King, 06 Feb 2014. Web. 6 Feb 2014. . "Stand: The Complete & Uncut Edition." Stephen King , 23 Apr 2012. Web. 9 Feb 2014. /stand:_the_complete__uncut_edition_the.html>. "Stephen Edwin King." FAMOUS PEOPLE, 06 Feb 2014. Web. 6 Feb 2014. edwin-king-34.php>. "Stephen King." N.p., 14 Feb 2014. Web. 14 Feb 2014. .

Wednesday, October 23, 2019


The word Debutante, or Deb, in French, is a word which means a young lady is introduced to the Society. In the Philippines, a Debutante's Ball is very popular, a milestone event and widely celebrated when a young Filipina teenager reaches the age of 18. Normally, a grand party is hosted by the family with huge budget sometimes more expensive than a wedding.One of the traditions and usually the highlight of the Debutante's Ball is the Grand Cotillion Waltz where the Debutante, her Escort and their Court (9 Pairs) will perform a highly -choreographed dance.Part of the tradition is where the Dad takes the 1st dance of the night, usually a waltz dance. A typical practice too is that this dance is a part of the 18 Roses dance.It's when 18 pre-selected men starting with the Debutante's Father will present her with 18 roses as they dance to a very special song. Usually the Debutante picks the dancers, which includes family members, friends, classmate, neighbors, cousin, brothers, her Father and sometimes the boyfriend.Absolutely a must do in a Debutante's Ball, the 18 Candles is when 18 women, beginning with the Debutante's Mother, each present the Debutante a lighted candle symbolizing one year of the Debutante's life. As the candles are presented, the participants often say a word of encouragement and/or birthday wishes.A relatively new practice, where 18 pre-selected guests presents the Debutante a gift that the Debutante shall treasure as she journey into womanhood. Each participant typically announces what is the gift all about and the reason/s why she or he chose that particular gift.We will not miss when the Debutante, after the guests sing together a birthday song, takes the center stage and cut the beautiful and elegant cake then one by one blow all the 18 candles.Also a part of the celebration is when the Debutante, getting ready to party, changed outfit and take the center stage to thank all those who is responsible for putting this party together, as well appreciating the presence of the all the guests. Normally, dancing starts after the Debutante's speech.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Hendrix essays

Hendrix essays Jimi Hendrix lived his life as a Musician, Guitarist, Singer and Songwriter. He also pioneered the electric guitar, a right handed Fender Strat, upside-down and left-handed. He was one of the most original and influential people of all time. James Marshall Hendrix was born November 27, 1942 in Seattle, Washington. He taught himself to play in his school boy days. He then enlisted himself in the Army as a parachute jumper, but an injury led to discharge. He then became a session guitarist known as Jimmy James. After gigging with Little Richard in 1964, he got entangled in a contract dispute and left to form his own band, Jimmy James and the Blue Flames. One night at a New York club, Chas Chandler encountered him and in the fall of 1966, took him to London. After Making several albums including; Axis: Bold as Love and Electric Ladyland, Hendrix and bassist Redding grew apart and intoxicated by over-indulgence in drugs, Hendrix thought that Management was cheating him. In 1969 the Experience disbanded. In the summer of 69 he played at woodstock. He later formed the Band of Gypsies, and started a double album in the mid-1970s, but was never finished when he died September 18, 1970, due to inhalation of vomit after barbiturate intoxication. ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

michaelagelo essays

michaelagelo essays Michelangelo Di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni is known as the greatest sculptor of the sixteenth century. He was known in the same magnitude as Donatello in the fifteenth century and Bernini in the seventh century. Michelangelo was not only a renowned Italian Renaissance sculpture and painter, but also an architect and poet. He exerted an paralleled influence on the development of Western art(Encyclopedia Britannica, 1994). The Artist that is known around the world simply as, Michelangelo resisted a paintbrush. He often claimed that his only tool would be the chisel. Born at Caprise, in Tuscany on March 6, 1475, he was the second of five boys. Even though he was born in Tuscany, he considered himself from Florence. This loyalty to Florence would later help shape his life. He was sensitive about being considered an artist, and treated as if he ran a shop. Michelangelo would later profess that his family paid taxes and held government posts in Florence for three hundred years. This would place him among the citys upper echelon. With this would come wealth, land, and social status, and this disconnected Michelangelo from the fellow artists. Michelangelos mother became very sick and could not take care of the future painter of the Sistine Chapel, so he was placed with a nurse, in a family of stone cutters. This is where Michelangelo was first exposed to stone working. This would help explain how he developed his own personal style at the tender age of sixteen. Michelangelo first showed this personal style in two relief sculptures, The Battle of the Centaurs, and The Madonna of the Stairs (Both 1489-92, Casa Buonarroti, Florence). Along with these two sculptures, Michelangelos early style is shown in the marble David. Michelangelo worked on this gigantic (4.34 m/ 14.24 ft) stature between 1501 and 1504. He chose to represent David as an athlet ...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Cats Cradle essays

Cat's Cradle essays The novel Cat's Cradle was published in 1963, the year of the Bay of Pigs invasion. It was the height of the Cold War, and most Americans lived in fear of a fiery nuclear apocalypse. However, the author presents an alternative apocalypse, one of the "great door of heaven being closed softly" (261). In this novel, Vonnegut presents a different but equally terrifying end - a world encased in frozen ice. One of the novel's themes is how human irresponsibility can contribute to this icy end. Though Vonnegut himself warned that much of the novel consists of strange plot twists and coincidences, the strength Cat's Cradle lies in its richly drawn characters. Throughout the novel, Vonnegut presented characters whose irresponsibility helped bring much of life on This novel examines how Vonnegut uses the main and minor characters in Cat's Cradle to reflect on the consequences of human irresponsibility. John, who calls himself "Jonah," acts as the novel's narrator. The reader is told of John's cynicism through other characters. His ex-wife, for example, paints him as "too pessimistic" (77). John is also content to believe in the concept of vin-dit. Because this Bokononist concept places God at the guiding helm of one's life, belief in vin-dit can also be read as a refusal to take responsibility for one's actions. Even when he recognizes the emptiness of Bokononism, John still decides to continue the religion's charade. By doing so, he indirectly contributes to the death of thousands of Bokononist followers towards the end of the novel, when many San Lorenzans commit suicide out of faith and despair. However, John is also effectively used as a foil to highlight the irresponsibility of the novel's other characters. For example, when Angela complains about her father being unfairly compensated for his work, John points out the selfishness of this statement in l...

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Economic Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Economic Development - Essay Example Therefore, in most developing countries, a wide gap can be seen between the rich and the poor unlike that in the developed nations. This gap widens more as long as rural development is ignored by economists and politicians. But there is a sudden change being experienced in the approach of economists and intellectuals. Those who have merely ignored the rural development in the past are now propagating for its development. Next sections of the essay will analyze the reasons behind ignoring rural development and the sudden change of approach. Reasons for Change of Approach Rural development mainly refers to the role of agriculture for the development of the nation. â€Å"Agriculture constitutes the main source of employment of the majority of the world’s poor. In total, the share of agriculture in total employment in developing countries constitutes 53% of the total workforce in 2004. In Sub-Saharan Africa 60% of the economically active population works in the agricultural secto r.† (Meijerink & Roza, 2007). This shows that agriculture or rural sector is the back bone of many developing economies. But the increased importance given to the industrialization opened up many industries and reduced the share of agriculture to the overall economic growth. Agriculture gradually became less attractive for the economies. This made the economists and intellectuals to reduce the focus on rural areas. But now economists and governments are seemed to be increasing their focus on rural development especially in developing countries. Some of the disadvantage of urbanization and industrialization helped them for this late realization. The main factors that lead to the change of approach are as follows: 1. Poverty 2. Unbalanced growth 3. Food Security 4. Lack of Infrastructure 5. Rural Marketing Poverty: Increased poverty in the rural area is the main reasons for this change of approach. Poverty is seen as a drawback for the development of a nation. Overall developmen t of an economy is not possible if there is a considerable percentage of poor among the population. Eradicating poverty became the major agenda of many countries. While looking back to the 19th century, economists realized that irrespective of the size of the nation, the sole factor that drove the economy was agriculture. But somewhere with the advent of technologies, countries reduced the focus on agriculture. This is one of the reasons that helped the economists to change their mind. Unbalanced Growth: In most developing countries, there is a wide gap between rich and the poor. Though such countries are recording tremendous economic progress, it could not be categorized as a developed nation when there is an unbalanced growth in the economy. Majority of the population should experience more or less similar growth and living conditions for a balanced growth in the economy. Food Security: Another major reason for the change of approach of the economists is food security. â€Å"At i ts June 2003 summit, the G8 group of countries recognized the need to increase investment in rural and agricultural development to achieve lasting food security. It pledged to reverse the decline in ODA for agriculture and to increase trade opportunities for developing countries.† (Bage, 2004) Food security is now a cause of concern for many countries. As a result of this, countries are increasing their respective funding to the agriculture sector in order to

Friday, October 18, 2019

VTI CASE STUDY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

VTI CASE STUDY - Essay Example It is in light of this that planning remains an important aspect of all organizational structuring and management. In the absence of planning, organizations loss focus and fail to have a yardstick for measuring and identifying the height of growth they want to reach (Fernandez & Rainey, 2006). Through planning also, it is always possible for the organization to identify aspects and areas for change. Currently, VTI has come to a crossroad where the need for thorough organizational planning that will bring about rapid change is more than a necessity. From the situational analysis of the company, it is time for the company to respond to its external factors of competitiveness, which is focused on the use of electronic commerce (e-commerce). The need for change Change has its own merits and demerits, depending on how it is implemented and the factors that bring it about (Hadaway, Marler & Chaves, 2003). Generally though, many are those who are not comfortable with organizational changes. These people, commonly referred to as administrative conservatives hold the opinion that undertaking organizational changes affect the organizational climate negatively because it forces stakeholders to adjust when they are not really ready to adjust (Hannan & Freeman, 2004). A very typical example of this situation could be said to be taking place among the old senior management team of VTI Ltd who are refusing any form of change from the traditional street sales that the company is involved in. currently, change is eminent for VTI Ltd and cannot be delayed any further. This is because the market in which the company is operating has become so influenced with competition and user definition, whereby it is no longer what the company wants to offer to the consumer that matters but what the consumer wants to have (Alversson & Willmott, 2002). The need for change is therefore in the need for the company to keep track with the changes that is happening outside its domain of control. Ca uses of change The fact that the company is currently experiencing all time low in sales and has not made any profits in the past 2 years is due to a number of factors, some of which are internal, and others, external. Internally, it can be noted that there is a total absence and lack of unified code of conducting business at VTI. Clearly, the old senior management team is in a world of their own whiles the relatively younger staff is in a world of their own. In such a situation, Neale, Tenbrunsel, Galvin & Bazerman (2006) note that organizational conflict becomes common, especially role conflict. Presently, there seem to be a major lack of understanding as to the focus that the company should have in the implementation of basic organizational objectives. This has created an apathy whereby each member of within the organization is defending what he or she feels is right for the organization rather than what the organization wishes to have for itself. In relations to the adage that i n unity is strength, it is important that the company has a common focus of the path it is going to trend to bring about the implementation of its goals and objectives. There are also major external causes of the poor performance that the company is currently experiencing. Firstly there is an absence of competitive advantage by the company to meet the competition it is faced with from its key competitors squarely. Currently, the global record sales market has become so competitive that there are new companies and outlines springing up with time. This has created brought about the need for

Problem Organization Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Problem Organization - Essay Example This paper hereby describes the historical context of CBHF referring to its vision and mission along with various other factors to assess the actual problem inherent to its discontinuation suggesting remedial measures which could have assisted in neglecting such a consequence. Introduction Clinton Bush Haiti Fund (CBHF), which was established as a non-profit organization to rescue the victims of 2010 earthquake in Haiti, was on a verge of closing down its operations on December 31, 2012. The reason behind closing the organization of CBHF Bush Haiti Fund was reported to be the insufficiency of adequate funds for the development of individuals in the socio-demographic region of Haiti. It has also been observed that there is further requirement of nation building in the regions of Haiti; however, an insignificant numbers of members are observed to be interested in providing hard work for the organization. In addition, the inadequacy of funds that had been raised for the development of t he region and to execute other necessary operations of the non-profit organization can also be regarded as a threat to the sustenance of CBHF. Owing to its deteriorating financial stance, the organization also had to face bankruptcy risks which again caused severe threat to its existence and effectiveness or success in delivering the intended facilities to the community people in Haiti (Daniel, 2012). To make the matter worse, the organization has been disregarded to be eligible to acquire funds in terms of donations from its stakeholders since 31st December, 2012 thus contributing towards its financially deteriorating health (Foundation Center, 2013). Moreover, the organizational members were heavily criticized for inefficiency in providing effective decisions for the betterment of Haiti people in the society along with lacking any report for substantial progress which accumulatively caused the problems for CBHF (Weisbrot, 2013). With reference to this case example, the paper inten ds to discuss on the history, outcomes, law in practice, and solutions for the problems witnessed by CBHF. The paper also discusses on ethical issues of the organization providing rational recommendations for future avoidance of such problems. History CBHF is a non-profit organization established in the year 2010, with a vision and mission to assist the population in Haiti and therefore contributing towards building the country in a better way. As per its norms being a non-profit organization, CBHF has been utilizing the donation gathered through grants, loans and investments in equity for promotion of growth of job along with sustainable development of the entire economy. On its establishment, the organization envisioned towards fostering diversity and competitiveness of the economy of Haiti with the support of prevalent nonprofit organizations and focusing on partnering with profit entities (Clinton Bush Haiti Fund, 2010). Mission The mission of the organization had been to delive r consistent assistance to the people living in the society of Haiti in deprivation of adequate basic amenities. Moreover, promotion of economic opportunities was also considered as an important mission of the organization (Clinton Bush Haiti Fund, 2010). Key Individuals The key individuals, associated with the organization since its establishment, were reported to be the two former US Presidents, Mr. Bill

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Setting Up Business and Financial Reporting Essay

Setting Up Business and Financial Reporting - Essay Example Income tax differs as per different forms of business structure like the sole proprietorship, partnership, and company. "Pass-through" tax entities like sole proprietorships, partnerships and limited liability companies are charged taxes as per the net profits they generated (, 2015b). Australian industrial or business environment system requires sound understanding and selecting feasible business structures to gain success. Owners have to explore the guideline promoted by Australian Taxation Office. It will help in learning income tax rules for different type of business in Australia. Unincorporated business owners are responsible to pay income taxes on the basis of net profits earned by the business during any fiscal period. Reserves and provisions are not considered as a part of profits while calculating income tax. It creates issues for the partnership or sole proprietorship businesses (, 2015c). On the other hand, partnership business is quite compl ex as partners many a time avoid reporting their shares on corporate profits, which reduces personal tax returns. Partners report salaries, bonuses and dividends incomes as their taxable income. Therefore, it can be said that owners of partnership firms enjoy the tax advantage. In this scenario, all the four partners Mary, Martha, John, and James are responsible to pay tax individually and on-behalf of their new day spa business. Australian Taxation Office can face the potential avoidance of reporting share from the business.

Halecar and Mid Lans Automotive Two cultures merge Coursework - 1

Halecar and Mid Lans Automotive Two cultures merge - Coursework Example The first is that there is the need to bring together two potentially conflicting cultures and practices under one single corporate structure(Armstrong, 2012). The second issue includes adjusting the individual HR practices and systems in each of the organisations in order to eliminate errors and inefficiencies of the past(Armstrong & Taylor, 2014). The purpose of this paper is to critique the circumstances relating to the systems and practices of the two companies. This will be done on the context of historical practices and processes. From there, the paper will recommend a way forward in improving the HR system, organisational culture and other practices for the achievement of the corporate strategy of the newly formed car manufacturer – Mid Lancashire Automotive. The facts of the case brings to the fore, important pointers and issues that can be used to diagnose HR and Organisational Behaviour concerns. These issues can be used to streamline the structures of the new company, Mid Lancashire Automotive and give the blueprints for the creation of a new and a better entity that will achieve better results. The ultimate end is to develop a good HRM strategy that will operate within an appropriate Corporate Strategy to ensure efficiency and effectiveness that will lead to competitive advantage and ensure the survival of the new company in turbulent times. There are three main classes of issues that are of relevance to this analysis. First of all, there is a case of the issues inherent in HaleCars. Secondly, there are issues with Mid Lancs which come with unique implications for a new human resource management strategy. Finally, there are the conflicts that will arise as a result of trying to link up the two entities into one entity. The organisational culture of HaleCars is one that is built around the specialisation and focus of the firm because they only do a few cars at a given point in time and this kind of bespoke and extreme

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Setting Up Business and Financial Reporting Essay

Setting Up Business and Financial Reporting - Essay Example Income tax differs as per different forms of business structure like the sole proprietorship, partnership, and company. "Pass-through" tax entities like sole proprietorships, partnerships and limited liability companies are charged taxes as per the net profits they generated (, 2015b). Australian industrial or business environment system requires sound understanding and selecting feasible business structures to gain success. Owners have to explore the guideline promoted by Australian Taxation Office. It will help in learning income tax rules for different type of business in Australia. Unincorporated business owners are responsible to pay income taxes on the basis of net profits earned by the business during any fiscal period. Reserves and provisions are not considered as a part of profits while calculating income tax. It creates issues for the partnership or sole proprietorship businesses (, 2015c). On the other hand, partnership business is quite compl ex as partners many a time avoid reporting their shares on corporate profits, which reduces personal tax returns. Partners report salaries, bonuses and dividends incomes as their taxable income. Therefore, it can be said that owners of partnership firms enjoy the tax advantage. In this scenario, all the four partners Mary, Martha, John, and James are responsible to pay tax individually and on-behalf of their new day spa business. Australian Taxation Office can face the potential avoidance of reporting share from the business.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Company law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Company law - Essay Example The committee must also make sure that remuneration arrangements strictly abide by the regulatory bodies’ requirements and meet the expectations of shareholders as well as the wider employee population (ibid). Earlier, controversial director remuneration increases in the United Kingdom were widely criticised and as a result, the UK government framed a set of regulations to control executive director remuneration. According to the Code of Best Practice suggested by the Greenbury committee, the remuneration committee must be comprised of non executive directors. The Greenbury committee also directs to completely disclose the remuneration policy as well as directors’ individual remuneration package. The UK Corporate Governance Code 2010 or simply the Code, which is a set of some good corporate principles, describes various procedures involved in setting executive director remuneration in public limited companies. Section D.1 of the UK Corporate Governance Code 2010 states that the level of remuneration should be sufficient enough to attract, motivate, and retain executive directors and thereby run the company successfully. At the same time, the level of executive remuneration must not be more than necessary. The section D.1 specifically says that â€Å"a significant proportion of executive directors’ remuneration should be structured so as to link rewards to corporate and individual performance† (The UK Corporate Governance Code, 2010). The Code continues that elements of performance-based executive remuneration must focus on the company’s long term success. In addition, the remuneration committee has to decide whether to structure their remuneration policy relative to other companies; however, the committee must consider the risk of higher levels of remuneration with no corresponding performance improvement. The committee should also consider pay and employment conditions while making decisions on annual salary increases. The Se ction D.2 deals with procedures involved in setting executive directors’ remuneration. According to this section, â€Å"there should be a formal and transparent procedure for developing policy on executive remuneration and for fixing the remuneration packages of individual directors† (The UK corporate governance code (The UK Corporate Governance Code, 2010). Referring to Main principles of the UK corporate governance code (genius methods, 2010) section D.2 clearly tells that no executive director must not be allowed to involve in setting his/her own remuneration (ibid). The remuneration committee has the obligation to confer with the chairman and/or chief executive regarding the effectiveness of the proposal framework structured on the executive director remuneration. The committee also has the responsibility to appoint consultants in order to effectively set a potential executive director remuneration policy. If there is an involvement from the part of executive direc tors of top management in advising or assisting the remuneration committee, due care must be exercised to timely identify and avoid conflicts of interest. It is the duty of the board chairman to ensure that the company effectively communicates to its shareholders regarding various aspects of the remuneration proposal. The section D.2.1 of the Code tells that there should be at least three (it can be two in case of smaller

The History of the Viola Essay Example for Free

The History of the Viola Essay The viola is not the best known instrument in the violin family. In fact, ask anyone you know that is not involved with orchestra what it is and they would blink dumbly at you. In reality, even though the violin is better known in todays society, it is possible that violas appeared before violins because the Italian word for violin, violino, is derived from the word viola, although no one knows who invented it or when it was invented. To answer anyones question on what exactly a viola is, a viola is the alto in the violin family, which evolved from the viol, an instrument with many strings that is bowed and held across the knees. They used to be called the alto-tenor violin. The viola we know today is the result of the gradual merging of the alto and tenor violas over three centuries. Most musicians did not like to play the tenor viola because it was so large in size and difficult to play because of this. So, gradually, luthiers stopped making the tenor viola. The alto violas neck was too short to play the music that was getting more difficult by the 16th century. So luthiers lengthened the neck of the alto viola in order for musicians to play a wider range of notes. The modern-day viola is about 1-3.5 inches longer than a violin, making them around 16 to 18 inches long. Today they are the only instruments that use the alto clef. Violas are not nearly as famous as the violin or cello, and they probably never will be. There are very, very, few solo violists, especially compared to the amount of solo violinists. In the ordinary orchestra, there are about three violins to every viola, and sometimes more. Composers sometimes wouldnt even bother writing a viola part. Violas would end up playing the bass part. It wasnt until the opera Orfeo, written in 1607, that violas began to become more important. Gradually, violas earned their own parts, and even get very important parts in pieces. Violas took a secondary role in the 17th and 18th centuries, even though musicians such as Mozart and Bach were both accomplished violists. It resurged with compositions like Harold in Italy in 1834 by French composer Hector Berlioz. Johnannes Brahms and Hector Schumann also wrote important pieces for violas

Monday, October 14, 2019

Mergers and Acquisitions in the Pharmaceutical Industry

Mergers and Acquisitions in the Pharmaceutical Industry Introduction Mergers are done to expand the business and improve profitability by companies with mutual consent. Acquisitions occur when one company takes over another which may be friendly or hostile. Mergers and Acquisitions (MA) are actively taking place in the pharmaceutical and biotech organizations and this trend is expected to prevail for the next one to two years. The bio-pharma industry is dynamic and is currently changing focus from RD to licensing and outsourcing. So before any MA activity a strategy formulation is very essential with emphasis on creating a competitive advantage for the business. Mergers and Acquisitions (MA) are generally done with the following motives: to exploit economy of scale, to eliminate duplicated functions, to share managerial expertise, synergy, taxation, market power because of decreased competition. MA that are done with reduced competition as motive are socially unacceptable and illegal as they lead to monopolistic scenarios. The MA may not be successful in generating returns if the deal was closed with a high price due to impulsive and enthusiastic deals. MA also leads to diversification which has proved to be beneficial in stabilizing the returns. A merger or acquisition is an extremely stressful process for those involved: job losses, restructuring, and the imposition of a new corporate culture and identity can create uncertainty, anxiety and resentment among a companys employees. (Appelbaum 2000) Companies focus on the legal and financial issues involved with the MA and fail to pay attention to the long term effects like corporate identity and communication which greatly influence the employee motivation and productivity. The pharmaceutical industry The Indian Pharmaceutical Sector is currently the largest amongst the developing nations. There is a worldwide structural trend evolving in pharmaceuticals and Indian companies play a key role in this framework, driven by their superior biotech and drug synthesis skills, high quality and vertically integrated manufacturing assets, differentiated business models and significant cost advantages. Companies across the world are reaching out to their counterparts to take mutual advantage of the others core competencies in RD, Manufacturing, Marketing and the niche opportunities offered by the changing global pharmaceutical environment. (Shukla 2006) The pharmaceutical sector offers an array of growth opportunities. This sector has always been dynamic in nature and the pace of change has never been as rapid as it is now. To adapt to these changing trends, the Indian pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies have evolved distinctive business models to take advantage of their inherent strengths and the Borderless nature of this sector. (Shukla 2006) Environmental factors The changing environment in the bio-pharma industry is driving an increased activity of Mergers and acquisitions. In 2008, sales growth of prescribed drugs globally has reached the lowest rate in since 2001. Along with this slowdown, the pharmaceuticals sector is faced with an increasingly challenging environment resulting from increasing patent expirations, growing generic sales, reducing new drug pipelines and stricter regulations. The biotechnology sector also faces increased regulatory challenges as well as shortage of credit. The patents are getting expired and there is increased competition for generic drugs. Patients are becoming more aware and manage their own conditions. The healthcare models are thus changing. With such environmental pressures increasing the companies resort to MA as a tool for corporate growth. MA do not exceed their cost of capital. Still companies go for MA because of some strategies like increased market strength consolidating for cost reduction broadening geographic coverage pipeline stuffing (Coles 2002) Some recent MA The US and European generics companies are scouting for alliances/buyouts at the back end of the chain, which would allow them to offset any manufacturing cost advantage held by companies in the developing markets. The Indian companies are looking at the front-end integration as building a front-end distribution set-up from scratch could take significant time. (Shukla 2006) There are also entry barriers for companies from the developing countries and acquisitions make it easy for these organizations to find a foothold in the developed markets. For instance, there is a cultural and language barrier in Europe and Europe is high on the radar of Indian pharmaceutical companies. The sheer heterogeneity of Europe and the fragmented nature of its pharmaceutical market make acquisitions an easy route for entry into this region and the US being the largest pharmaceutical market in the world will always interest the Indian pharma companies for its sheer size. (Shukla 2006) The acquisitions of RPG Aventis (by Ranbaxy) and Alpharma (by Cadila) in France are clear examples of acquisitions proving to be a drain on the companys profitability and return ratios for several years post acquisition. In several other cases acquisitions by Indian generic companies are small and have been primarily to expand geographical reach while at the same time, shifting production from the acquired units to their cost-effective Indian plants. A few have been to develop a bouquet of products. Other than Wockhardts acquisition of CP Pharma and Esparma, it has taken at least three years for the other global acquisitions to see break-even. Most of the acquiring companies have to pay greater attention to post merger integration as this is a key for success of an acquisition and Indian companies have to wake up to this fact. Also, with the increasing spate of acquisitions, target valuations have substantially increased making it harder for Indian companies to fund. In January 2009, Pfizer entered into a merger agreement with Wyeth valued at US$68 billion. The deal is to be financed through a combination of cash, stock and debt. A consortium of banks will provide US$22.5 billion for the MA. In March 2009, Roche acquired the remaining 44 percent of Genentech shares for an all-cash US$46.8 billion deal. Prior to the deal, Roche raised US$39 billion through bond sales. In March 2009, Merck Co. acquired Schering-Plough in a cash-stock deal worth US$41.1 billion. The cash component includes US$9.8 billion from Mercks cash reserves and US$8.5 billion committed by JP Morgan Chase. (MA: Outlook for pharmaceuticals 2009) If a company was acquired for its RD pipeline and development projects or platform technology, in majority of cases, the acquiring company failed to derive full benefits and most of the projects were later discontinued or terminated. Diversified companies like Roche, JJ, Abbott and Novartis with devices, generics and diagnostic performed better as compared to pure pharmaceutical RD driven company like Pfizer and Merck. Strategies for successful MA The industrys experience shows that megamergers often do not produce the intended synergies, but rather tend to erode shareholder value and create major integration challenges, while not achieving improved new drug pipelines. (Alternatives to mega mergers 2009) Tetenbaum (1999) suggests an alternative set of seven key practices to assist with a successful merger or acquisition: Close involvement of Human Resources managers in the acquisition process; they should have a say in whether or not the deal goes ahead. Building organisational capacity by ensuring that close attention is paid to the retention and recruitment of employees during the acquisition. Ensuring that the integration is focused on achieving the desired effect (for example, cost savings), while at the same time ensuring that the core strengths and competences of the two companies are not damaged by the transition. Carefully managing the integration of the organisations cultures. Completing the acquisition process quickly, since productivity is harmed by the disorganisation and demoralisation that inevitably occur while the change is underway. Communicating effectively with everyone who will be affected by the change. Other authors agree that being truthful, open and forthright during an acquisition is vital in helping employees to cope with the transition. (Appelbaum 2000) Developing a clear, standardised integration plan. Tetenbaum cites the example of Cisco Systems, which, like GE Capital, makes large numbers of acquisitions and has been able to learn from its experiences and build up tried-and-tested processes for carrying them out successfully. (Tetenbaum 1999) Conclusion The companies may be heading towards more megamergers of the scale seen in the recent past or they may move towards smaller strategic acquisitions. Deals in the biotechnology sector could increase further as small and mid-size biotechnology companies become increasingly willing to enter into deals at value prices. Large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are scouting around for deals at much lower valuations, and the current trend of MA in generics is one to watch for in the future. Although there are many different opinions on precisely what causes so many mergers and acquisitions to fail, and on how these problems can be avoided, there are certain points that most analysts appear to agree on. It is widely accepted, for instance, that the human factor is a major cause of difficulty in making the integration between two companies work successfully. If the transition is carried out without sensitivity towards the employees who may suffer as a result of it, and without awareness of the vast differences that may exist between corporate cultures, the result is a stressed, unhappy and uncooperative workforce and consequently a drop in productivity.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

the patriot review :: essays research papers

The Patriot Movie Review The Movie, The Patriot, was a rousing and vigorous Revolutionary War epic from the view point of a family full of revenge and strong wills. This movie began with the majority of colonists angered. This part of the movie caught my attention and intrigued me to keep watching until the last minute. I especially enjoyed the heartbreaking moments and the realistic war scenes in the movie. Although I liked those aspects of the movie, the storyline was exceptionally good as well. To understand this historical fiction movie, a historical background is needed. If a person does not understand what is meant by â€Å"Taxation without representation,† then the subject of conflict will not be understood. The plot of the movie began to develop when Benjamin Martin’s son, Gabriel, was captured by British troops. Benjamin Martin was a former hero of the French and Indian War, but he renounced fighting so that he would be able to raise his family in peace. Attempting to save his brother, Benjamin’s other son stood up to the British soldiers, but was killed in the process. Benjamin, only wanting to save Gabriel, ended up fighting in battle, rescuing Gabriel, and killing the murderer of his other son. After all of this happened Benjamin realized the importance of being involved in the war, so he sent his other children to live with their aunt in order for he and Gabriel to join the army. Once they became part of the army, Benjamin became a general and lead his colonial militia, including Gabriel, into trifling battles. During battle Gabriel was killed, which deeply depressed Benjamin and made him so distraught that he does not feel like fighting anymore. His feelings stayed this way until (while at the camp) he saw the Brit that killed Gabriel. Benjamin then killed that man and understood at that moment why so many men had been dieing. Because of this, Benjamin became extremely patriotic and decided to move on with the Americans because he then had something t o fight for. Everything that happened kept me on the edge of my chair wanting to know what was going to happen next. Overall, I thought that this movie was very moving and vigorous. Although I enjoyed the main portion of the movie, there were some obvious likes and dislikes in my opinion. I believe that I learned from this movie and it helped me understand more of what the people of that time were feeling.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Graduation Speech -- Graduation Speech, Commencement Address

Well, this is it. Our last night. The last page of the scrapbook we call high school. Our scrapbooks are filled with memories from the first day we walked into these halls ... to this very night. Pictures crammed in, ticket stubs nestled between them, adorned by dried corsages and newspaper clippings, yellowed with every fond recollection. The smiling pictures are the friends we?ve made in high school. Friends are what make life special. Every person we encounter has a definite effect on our lives. If one face in our scrapbook were missing, a part of our lives would disappear also. Remember the football game where you finally got the fight song right? That?s your ticket stub. Maybe it was the musical that you rehearsed months for. Or cheering at the state basketball tournament. Or ... Graduation Speech -- Graduation Speech, Commencement Address Well, this is it. Our last night. The last page of the scrapbook we call high school. Our scrapbooks are filled with memories from the first day we walked into these halls ... to this very night. Pictures crammed in, ticket stubs nestled between them, adorned by dried corsages and newspaper clippings, yellowed with every fond recollection. The smiling pictures are the friends we?ve made in high school. Friends are what make life special. Every person we encounter has a definite effect on our lives. If one face in our scrapbook were missing, a part of our lives would disappear also. Remember the football game where you finally got the fight song right? That?s your ticket stub. Maybe it was the musical that you rehearsed months for. Or cheering at the state basketball tournament. Or ...

Development and Social Change Essay

â€Å"Although globalization made earlier appearances, the trend has unfolded with unprecedented speeds, and to unprecedented extents since the 1960s. † (SCHOLTE. 2000) This essay will explain how the forces of globalisation have shaped and will continue to shape, the financial, demographic, and political societies we see around us today. It will identify the extent to which sustained Globalization has â€Å"†¦ the crevice between poverty, comparative poverty, and luxury. † Such positive and negative attributes affect society on a number of different levels, â€Å"†¦ the individual, the household, the firm, the town, the region, the sector, the nation. † (Kaplinsky) This essay will provide and in-depth analysis and examples of how such global processes have worked to erode the fortunes of so many (Sierra Leone); whilst also being the catalyst for success in other areas (Mexico). (HELD. 2007) ‘The Race to the Bottom,’ is a term describing the intra-national contest for the most favourable environment for business trading, manufacture and investment. Following its successful application to join the World Trading Organisation (WTO) in November 2001, China has experienced a vast influx of foreign investment. This has – as expected – empowered the Chinese economy to the detriment of its former South-east Asian exporting partners. Hong Kong and Taiwan had nurtured the Chinese economy for a decade previously, and now find that their economies are being â€Å"†¦ hollowed out, as China sucks away jobs. † (CHAN. 2009) How did this happen? In the early 1990s China introduced its first minimum wage system with the intention of protecting its workforce. Due to the great versatility of China, the government came up with a formula (based upon local living costs; inflation etc. ) with which each city or region would publish and enforce its own minimum wage. The benchmark for all minimum wages set is between 40% and 60% of the average wage in that locality. Since 1993, according to a study by the Bureau of International Labour Affairs, almost all of the provincial governments have failed to maintain these standards – [see table 2]. Their desire to attract investment has forced the minimum wage : average wage percentage further down. Shenzhen, a model Chinese exports city, paid, on average, 10% less that the absolute minimum wage required by the government and international labour standards. Conversely, the city of Chongqing, which is not export-led or globally integrated, consistently achieves almost 10% more than its minimum required standards (49. 86% in 2000). Chan concludes a â€Å"worrying trend. † She suggests that; â€Å"†¦ as a region or province becomes more prosperous, it violates the national guidelines and seeks to maintain its attractiveness to foreign capital by keeping its minimum wage level low†¦ the benefits of globalisation with this competitive logic have not, and will not, trickle down to those who make the products. † (CHAN. 2009) The Human Development Report 2006-2008 uses Corrado Gini’s coefficient to highlight an increase in overall inequality from 0. 31 to 0. 45 during the initial years of reform. [Coefficient measures between 0 and 1 where 0 is complete equality]. (FACTSHEET. 2008) However, the benefits of neo-liberal economic reform in China seem to have had a positive effect on ‘Poverty. ’ Between 1990 and 2005 the influx of industry and trade bought a per capita growth averaging 8. 7%. Using the World Bank poverty line, (measured at Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)) household surveys suggest that post 1981, 54% (500,000,000 people) of the population of China scrambled over the poverty line. (CHAN. 2009) In this sense, we must conclude that global economic integration in China has seen a significant reduction in poverty, but an increase in income inequality has come from overwhelming national development due to increasingly capitalist structures stemming from trade liberalization. What advocates of globalization emit is that two thirds of Chinese industry relies on coal, and just 7% of their energy sources are renewable. A report from the Financial Times found that air pollution in China caused by heavy industry and chemical production has led to the annual premature deaths of 400,000 (air quality); 300,000 (indoor air quality); and a further 60,000 due to poor water quality. (BBC. 2007) There is 1 country in the world where economic growth rate has consistently outpaced that of the Asian Tigers: Botswana (9% average annual growth). Botswana had a GDP per capita of just US$ 77 at independence from Britain (1966). It now stands at US$ 7,554 (GLOBAL PROPERTY. 2010). Kraay notes that; â€Å"A sustainable future in Africa rests on its ability to develop and maximise natural resources. Diamonds play a major role in these efforts. † Diamond extraction and production requires a large investment of initial capital. In the case of Botswana, DeBeers and the Government of Botswana invested 50:50 US$40 million in the Damtshaa mine. FDI in diamonds around Botswana accounts for 33% of GDP growth. Global trading and distribution of diamonds and other minerals accounted for 55% of total government revenues in the late 1990s. (MBENDI. 2009) â€Å"Botswana’s history of sound management, good governance [Botswana has an accountable parliament and holds regular democratic elections] and an emerging focus on enhancing regional competitiveness should serve it well as it continues efforts to diversify. † (WORLD BANK. 2009) So, to what extent can we propose Botswana as a model of how ‘Sustained Globalization’ can ‘Eliminate World Poverty? ’ Firstly it is important to note the income elasticity of diamonds and other such minerals. They are a luxury product and due to the current economic downturn, as real wages decrease, demand is likely to proportionally decrease also. Growth estimates for 2009-2010 predict a contraction of 10. 2%. It seems that over reliance on the global export market has forged vulnerabilities in an otherwise stable nation. However the non-mining private sector of Botswana has proved to have deep foundations, recording a 9. 4% market increase this year. Either way, prudent fiscal and taxation policy, and low level of public debt (3% of GDP) resulting from huge capital influx over the years, mean that national reserves are likely to hold out for the recession period. (MBENDI. 2009) Secondly, it is important to note (as was the case in China), that increase in GDP is not directly proportional to poverty decrease. The most deprived quintile share just 1% of GDP, whilst the second quintile accounts for 5. 9% (Gini coefficient 0. 6). This means that 47% of the population still live below the poverty line. Perhaps the capital gains still need more time to filter down through infrastructure development and reform? In 1966 there were just 3 miles of roads; now there are 4,000 miles, a public transportation system and a nation-wide telephone grid. (WORKMAN. 2006) Perhaps the figures are being distorted by the unstoppable force of HIV/AIDs and malaria that has hit Botswana so hard recently? It is impossible to say. What we can say, however, is that in order to reap the benefits of global trade in the long-term, Botswana must recognise the fragilities of basing their economy on an exhaustible and export-orientated resource. In 1991 the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) under Froday Sankoh, launched assaults against the Government of Sierra Leone. Their goal was to combat ‘crime and corruption. ’ The ensuing 11-year conflict was funded throughout by revenues generated by the diamond trade (an estimated initial worth of US$ 125 million). A median estimate suggests the murder of 75,000 (USA Today and The Times). A less conservative opinion from the Agence France Presse believe the figure was nearer to 200,000. (WORLD BANK. 2009) Either way, the drain on capital, natural resources, labour demographic and widespread looting was funded by the global financial market and African integration with it. Capital obtained from ‘conflict diamonds’ was notably from consumerism in the global North. Following the end of the war in 2000, the country was exposed to anarchy and complete economic collapse. Drugs and arms trafficking in cocaine and ex-soviet weaponry was rife, and corrupt feudal political structures further intensified income inequality – Gini coefficient over 0. 6. In 2004 its trade deficit totalled $US 350 million. (FACTSHEET. 2005) In the same year the UN named Sierra Leone the poorest country in the world (based on PPP/capita); and â€Å"†¦ the worlds ‘least livable’ country, based on its poverty and the poor Quality of Life its citizens must endure. † (WORKMAN. 2006) Whose fault is it? Is it the greediness of the conflicting armies? Is it the presence of such a store of wealth in a poverty-stricken country with few other natural resources? Is it the emergence of a global market that has created cosmic demand for such commodities? Time will tell. What we can see is that again, (as was the case in China and Botswana) global financial demand caused a sharp increase in GDP of the country. In 1965 GPD in Sierra Leone was US$ 246; in 2000 it was US$1,330,429 – see Table. 3. We can also say that this does not in any way correlate to an increase in living standards or reduction in poverty. It represents a huge crack in the neo-liberal ideology and Shah’s suggestion that; â€Å"Sustained economic growth is the way to human progress. Economic globalisation in the form of freer circulation of capital would be beneficial to everyone. † (SHAH. 2009) This essay suggests that however trade and political systems are constructed, without complete socialism, conflict can, has, and will continue to peak at the emergence of valuable natural resources. We can also conclude that whilst globalization could â€Å"offer the best prospects for eliminating world poverty,† African history stands in the way of such an ideology. (Table 6) It is not, however, all doom and gloom for the globalization and poverty argument. Mexico in many ways lost the ‘Race to the bottom’ to China, but neo-liberal reform has played a vital role in the successful integration of the Mexican economy into the global manufacture and export market. Prior to the 1980s (and economic downturn), Mexican economics was characterised by protectionist policies, high tariffs and quotas, and restrictions to FDI. By 1981 choking fiscal profligacy and vulnerability to external conditions (notably the 1973 oil shock) caused an imbalance of payments and massive capital flight. This caused huge inflation and the worst recession since the 1930s, forcing devaluation of the Peso on numerous occasions and further recession. (SOMMER. 2008) The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) eliminated the almost all import and export taxes and infused a gradual fade-out of the majority of tariffs between Mexico, the US and Canada. Following initial success, (Table. 4) the government then furthered economic liberalization by implementing 11 free trade agreements with the EU, Japan, and countries in South and Central America. Table. 4 shows how Mexican commodities exported to the United States increases from US$39. 9 billion in 1993; to US$ 210. 8 billion in 2007 (437% increase). Over the same period GDP grew 46%. (SOMMER. 2008) The success of the Mexican model is based largely on efficiency and proximity. Maquiladoras are large manufacturing and export plants, the majority of which are located just south of the US border. There are around one million workers employed in any of the 3,000 clothing, furniture and electronic equipment factories. Their proximity to the US gains them a significant advantage in terms of lower indirect costs (90% of production is transported ‘North’ straightaway) than those of Asian Tigers and the Pacific Ring countries. (BORRAZ. 2007) In contrast to Sierra Leone and Botswana, GDP increase seems to have direct correlation with improvements in real wages; a negative correlation with income inequality; and an overall reduction in poverty. Evidence of its success is shown by a net decrease in Gini coefficient between 1992 and 2002 (Table 5). (FACTSHEET. 2005) Borraz shows that income is less concentrated and has a lower Gini coefficient in states that are more closely linked to the global economy. He suggests that states with stronger links to the world economy might offer proportionately higher wages to the unskilled workforce – in this case (young) women. Unskilled women in Mexico earn between 7% and 16% more than their counterparts in non-globalized or exporting states. Overall, in 2002, 7 out of 9 states in Mexico have seen a decrease in income inequality. (BORRAZ. 2007) Why then, has Mexico succeeded in reducing poverty, whilst Sierra Leone has not? According to Borraz there are two main reasons for Mexican success; 1. Commitment to universal education in the 1940s realized a significant increase in skilled labour and higher overall productivity – sustained GDP growth of 3-4% from 1940. Governmental organizations like PROGRESA have hugely enhanced school attendance rates and decreased child labour. In November 1999 PROGRESA strategies accounted for 82% of the 25% of boys who left work to choose basic or higher education. Thus it was inward looking development strategies prior to neo-liberal reform meant the basic infrastructures for rapid growth were already there. 2. Luck. On the verge of complete inward economic collapse, the discovery of the Cantarell oil fields in 1976 sustained an otherwise weakened and fluctuating Mexican economy. (BORRAZ. 2007) However, it is true that NAFTA and other trade liberalization schemes in the Americas have reduced income inequalities and increased real wages in Mexico – but at what cost? ; The violation of human rights of a million of underpaid (US$ 3. 40/day); overworked (up to 60 hours/week); underage (girls often start at 12 or 13) workers with minimum knowledge of their rights. â€Å"In 1987 a worker had to work 8 hours and 47 minutes to buy the basic food basket for a family of four. Today it takes 34 hours. † (CORPWATCH. 2009) The pollution of New River in Mexicali Valley [which runs into the Rio Grande] is now dumped with 130 million gallons of industrial waste each day. â€Å"According to the Texas Department of Health, since NAFTA went into effect the Hepatitis A rate for Cameron County shot up from 17. 8 per 100,000 residents to 87. 4 per 100,000 an increase of almost 400%. † (CORPWATCH. 2009) The Zapatistas have also suffered hugely from opening the agricultural market to mass produced US market-garden exports. Their anti-globalization ideology highlights that their inability to compete with mechanically harvested, artificially fertilized and genetically modified imports from the US. NAFTA also eliminated crop subsidies for Mexico while US farmers still receive them. The agrarian based society has directly suffered from a decrease in real wages and an increase in comparative poverty due to open trade. Further, â€Å"China [Page 2 & Table 1] has weakened the allure of Maquiladoras in recent years and some report that more than 500 plants have been closed since the beginning of the decade. † (SOMMER. 2009) Currently, the future of the Mexican economy is unknown. Sharp decreases in PEMEX oil production and the current financial crisis in the U. S. is revealing more weaknesses in the Mexican export strategy. (RANDEWICH. 2008) Conclusion Does â€Å"Sustained globalisation offers the best prospects for eliminating world poverty. † ? Firstly there is no confirmed method of effectively measuring either ‘Globalization’ or ‘Poverty. ’ One can not accurately judge the benefits/detrimental effects of globalization without a baseline measure for poverty. QOL indicators, the Gini coefficient, and GDP are subject to variations and outside influences that cannot be measured or corrected (E. g. measuring GDP in Kerala; or measuring the Gini coefficient of China). The Neo-liberal argument – that increased density of economic integration between countries will increase overall efficiency due to the specialization of resource use – is likely to be correct. The majority of trade liberalization cases show an overall increase in GDP. This cannot be taken further to suggest that it directly benefits those living in poverty. Further, in the case of Mexico and China, evidence suggests trade liberalization pits global forces against each other and with no weight divisions and no handicaps, smaller regions, towns, industries and households cannot be expected to win. â€Å"The eradication of global inequality requires much more than simply repeating the tired rhetoric of anti-imperialism, anti-capitalism or, even worse, marking globalization work for the poor. † (HELD. 2007) Claire Short’s White Paper (Title) fails to recognise this, suggesting 5 common elements to successful poverty reduction based around a neo-liberal framework: 1. Openness to trade and eagerness to attract FDI. 2. Political stability and competent governments committed to economic growth. 3. Savings and investment of at least 25% of national income. 4. Economic stability: controlled inflation and government budgeting; avoiding production collapse. 5. Market allocation of resources: minimal necessary government intervention. (DFID. 2006) Such claims can be considered naive. The DFID paper reads like a propaganda policy designed to gain electoral support. This essay suggests that there are only three conclusions that can be drawn. 1. That trade liberalization generally incurs an increase in international trade and GDP. 2. â€Å"Every international institution throughout history has been hierarchical and composed of dominant and subordinate states; there has never been, and in the future is never likely to be, an egalitarian and democratic international system. † (HELD. 2007) 3. â€Å"Globalization is in fast forward, and the world’s ability to understand and react to it is in slow motion. † (TURNER. 2003) Table 1 (WORLD BANK. 2009) (CHAN. 2009) Table 3. Estimated GDP Sierra Leone (WORLD BANK. 2009) TABLE. 4 (SOMMER. 2009) Table. 5 (CHAN. 2007) Table 6. (DFID. 2006) ABOUT. 2009. The History of Transportation [online] [Accessed 28th December 2009] Available from: http://inventors. about. com/library/inventors/bl_history_of_transportation. htm. ADELZADEH, A. 2008. Simulation Models of 5 African Economies. Designing Africa’s Poverty Strategies: Creating the Capacity for Policy Simulation. [online] [Accessed 3rd January 2010] Available from: http://models. wider. unu. edu/africa_web/input_login. php? class=bw_quickies&instance=quickies&country=bw

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Acoustic Design in Architecture

IntroductionThe intent of this study is to bring forth a design strategy for the transition of a big room to a multi usage theater. The study will show the necessary things that need to be considered to guarantee a satisfactory acoustic environment by mensurating the jobs encountered with acoustic design and how to undertake them. The study will look at the jobs related to this infinite and present possible solutions and recommendations based on the information available. Initial programAs in every instance, this room presents it ‘s ain alone set of jobs, which involve really common factors such as the form and size of the room, the intended usage of the infinite, the budget and the basic Torahs of acoustics. The phase will be best positioned at the Centre of the E wall, as shown in Fig.1 The audience deepness will be shallow and broad so that the best can be appreciated from a presentation or public presentation both visually and acoustically. More significantly, the sound making the audience will be equally distributed.With the phase positioned on the E wall, the obvious measure is to put the commixture desks and equipment storage in the boxed country opposite the phase. The walls are made of gypsum board. The room measures 15.176m broad and 12.176 long with an excess ‘pocket ‘ on the side mensurating 5m by 3.396m. The seating capacity will be about 80-100. Problems Although this is the logical manner to place the phase and seating, there is a large job with the design that needs to be ironed out ; the roof is high and airy on one side of the room yet low and dense on the other. As symmetricalness is critical in acoustic design, this is a large job. However, troubles would besides originate if the phase were positioned at one of the narrower sides of the room because the audience would still non acquire even sound distribution. The Windowss pose another large job for the proposal of the design. If they were a coveted characteristic a sound-reducing window could be fitted, but these are expensive and normally favoured in entering studios or topographic points where ocular presentation is non involved. For the intents of this undertaking, which must suit controlled lighting and projectors, daytime and the alterations in daytime would be unacceptable. The demand for Windowss in this instance is excess. The undertaking support can non justify electrical devices to command echo but sufficient committedness demands to be made towards sound support. For the intent of leasing the infinite to administrations outside of the university, it needs to be classed as a music locale, which brings with it it ‘s ain set of demands in footings of equipment and care every bit good as in the acoustic design.Trials with sound inside the infinite demand to be conducted before the talker agreement can be determined.Solutions and recommendationsWalls The wall opposite the phase will necessitate diffusors to administer or absorb the sound and modulate echo clip. Curtains along the dorsum of the phase country will give more options once the locale is up and running and could besides be extended to the North and South walls, in add-on to the absorbers and diffusors. Rigid Rocksil walling is first-class, but expensive. There are many fiberboard solutions on the market, which would be a cheaper option. These can be screwed to the bing wall. Floor A inexpensive and effectual option for the floor is heavy felt carpet carpet pad with a tight rug on the top. An attractive, but more expensive option would be to put wooden flooring over the top of the thick carpet pad ; the difficult surface of the wood could heighten the sound quality ; excessively much soft trappings may ‘deaden ‘ the sound. Ceiling The best solution to the job with the ceiling is to happen a balance between the sound generated under the high ceiling, with that being generated under the low side. As the country on one side of the room will hold a different sound quality to the other side, absorbers need to be fitted to the high ceiling to antagonize echo and a set of diffusors to the low ceiling to maximize the quality of the sound, ( see figure 2 ) . An aesthetic characteristic can be made of the high subdivision of the ceiling utilizing the reflectors and absorbers. Windows & A ; doors The solid fire doors will non leak much sound. Vibration leaked through the doorcase can be greatly decreased utilizing doorcase sound gaskets. The Windowss would be best removed or blocked with absorbers. An air conditioning system will necessitate to be installed, even if the Windowss remain, air conditioning is still perfectly necessary with so much insularity. Free standing absorbers Another ideal manner to add flexibleness to the working design of the studio is to include freestanding sound absorbers, deflectors and diffusors. These can be moved around to suit with the nature of public presentation or presentation and the size of the audience. They can besides be usage made without excessively much disbursal. Decision The initial job facing this undertaking faces is the multi intent usage for which it has been designated and the flexibleness that is required from the finished design. Live music and address require different methods of application in acoustic design. Address and play public presentations depend mostly on design made with good intelligibility in head, where as acoustic design for music locales needs to take other factors into consideration that may non work out best for address and frailty versa. In add-on to this, The University has limited financess for the undertaking. The of import factor here is that the design must be finished to a competitory criterion and the locale must be able to run swimmingly if The University is to do the theater a commercial success.More research needs to be carried out inside the room to find how, precisely, the issue with the ceiling can be decently resolved. The acoustics of the infinite will necessitate to be tested before work is carried out, utilizing a little sound system that can set up the extent of alteration in sound from one side of the room to the other. BibliographyMakrinenko, L. , Ed, Bradley, J.S.,1986. Acousticss of Auditoriums in Public Buildings, New York: Acoustic Society of America.Elsea P, 1996. ACOUSTIC TREATMENT FOR HOME STUDIOS, California: University of California Santa Cruz.Ed. Wallace Clement Sabine, 1921. Collected Documents on Acousticss, New York: 5 Acoustical Society of AmericaAcoustic Absorbers and Diffusers: Theory, Design, and Applicationby Trevor J. Cox, Peter D’Antonio, Spon Press ( April 1, 2004 )

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Liberalism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Liberalism - Essay Example Liberalism The theory of liberalism centers on a number of assumptions. The first assumption is that both state and non-state actors play a vital role in international relations. Liberalism values sub-state actors such as multi-national corporations and individuals. These actors can influence global politics (Shiraev and Zubok 389). The second major assumption under liberalism is that international relations encompass both cooperation and conflict. Liberals argue that since state are linked by finance and trade; they have incentives to cooperate with one another. This rationale allows the reduction of trade barriers such as tariffs. The democratic stability theory is also part of the second assumption and centers on the presumption that democratic states do not go to war with one another and that democratic countries do not instigate conflict. Liberals argue that democracies have shared values and norms thus identify with one another. Additionally, democracies are not subjected to military cont rol. The third assumption of the theory of liberalism is that states are not typically unitary or rational actors thus leaders play bi-level games by simultaneously negotiating with foreign leaders and making choices that maintain their constituencies’ happiness.economics can all be the most vital goal of a state. . The article speaks to the issues of international relations on environmental issues, specifically pollution and deforestation.... The primary issue is that of the environment and business as palm companies operating in Indonesia illegally burn forests so as to pave way for palm plantations. This is a recurring problem in the country. The issue of air pollution and deforestation presented in the article affects the South Asian region. The theory of liberalism holds that sub-state actors are primary instigators of international relations issues. Multinational companies that own palm plantations in Indonesia are some of the greatest masterminds of deforestation and the illegal slash-and-burn practices as they clear land for their plantations. The issue is a major problem for the actors since environmental issues such as deforestation and air pollution can affect an entire regions. The multinational corporations involved in polluting the air and deforesting lands are also bound to be impacted by the ensuing poor air quality. Like the corporations, other institutions and individuals in the region are also affected. For instance, airlines lose business as they planes are grounded while people suffer from breathing difficulties or lung diseases. The problem is experienced the same by all parties because, according to liberalism, environmental issues can dominate the international agenda thereby impacting the entire nation. All actors in the South Asian region are impacted by the consequences of palm plantations’ slash-and-burn practices. This means that the environmental issue is a collective problem, which according to liberals, is at the center of international cooperation (Shiraev and Zubok 367). The issue at hand is a demonstration of how financial power plays a significant role in shaping international politics. Indonesian officials argue that companies headquartered in

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Epistemology Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Epistemology - Assignment Example Uncertainty Principle is hard to understand, as it requires thorough understanding of physics. However, positivism is founded on principles indicating that matter is seen, observed and proved. It creates a conflict between the two principles. For example, advocates of positivism argue it is not possible to observe electron paths while pro- Uncertainty Principle argues that electrons travel on path called orbits (Gleiser, 2014). Postmodern epistemology is the study of how knowledge is assessed, gained, utilized and criticized. The development of Uncertainty Principle enabled the advocates of epistemology to widen their scope of learning. Concepts of Uncertainty Principle like quantum mechanics are studied in postmodern epistemology (Van & McIntyre-Mills, 2007). One of its implications is called determinism. It states that everything that has happened or will happen in the world is pre-determined by original conditions. However, this theory was abandoned after the discovery of quantum physics (Kitchin & Kneale, 2012). M.C. Robinson (2011). A thought experiment violating Heisenbergs uncertainty principle. Canadian Journal of Physics. P. 69-119 Retrieved from Marcelo Gleiser (2014). The Problem with a Clockwork Universe. Commentary on Science and society. Reterieved from <

Monday, October 7, 2019

Identify an entrepreneurial or intrapreneurial venture that has Research Paper

Identify an entrepreneurial or intrapreneurial venture that has leveraged global and social media - Research Paper Example The company involved its business owners from the onset to close of their operations. The company attempted to avoid promotional messages to the clients but rather involve them in the entire process of business (Hibbard 1). Sandoval indicates that Microsoft covers over 100 countries; thus, has a responsibility to advance their social as well as economic opportunities (152). This, therefore, led to the sharing of Microsoft messages that touched on â€Å"Your Office, Your Terms† slogan which led to more likes on Facebook and follows on Twitter (Hibbard 1). What I liked the most about the Microsoft’s approach in leveraging social media is the incorporation of women in their campaigns as the women occupy a considerable percentage of the audience group (Hibbard 1). I also loved the aspect that the company opted not to focus on promotion messages but emphasized on the usability of the site and how to improve their experience of the site. This explains why the Microsoft campaign led to more likes than expected. The female executives were targeted, and through file sharing and web conferencing, their businesses grew with a huge margin. What was exceptional and effective about the Microsoft’s approach was the editorial calendar. This calendar as Hibbard indicates included the mix of women who are in businesses (1). Through this platform, the women were provided with a platform for making discussions and post their contributions as far as business deals were concerned. It is through this calendar that the company managed to publish the stories of about 30 women in less than two months. In their social media-based initiative, the venture achieved social action as opposed to the usual interactions (Hibbard 1). The bloggers and users of the social media sites of the Microsoft page were engaged in learning more from the site such as the women who were

Sunday, October 6, 2019

Issues that might affect the success and survival of SKF Essay

Issues that might affect the success and survival of SKF - Essay Example The bearings are used to reduce friction between moving parts of a motor, engine or a wheel. SKF operates across the globe in 70 countries with 110 manufacturing sites. It deals with a wide range of industries such as pulp and paper machinery, steel industry, construction equipment, medical instruments, food and home appliances and many others (Kashani & DuBrule, 2009). SKF majorly deals with the business to business markets which mean that the bearings produced by the company are used as a raw material in other businesses. These kinds of markets are generally more price sensitive as the prices of the raw material producer affect the prices of the end products that the consumers are going to use. The competitive edge of SKF had always been the superior quality products which meant producing bearings that were durable and reliable. With high quality meant high prices to be paid; premiums for premium products. SKF produced highly engineered bearings as they knew that the bearings were being used in critical applications such as jet engines and gas turbines, where a small mistake or malfunctioning could lead to disastrous failures. Service, whether they are post sale or presale are of utmost importance. This helps and ensures the building of goodwill of any organisation. (Vartanian, 2010).  SKF worked with the trained and authorized distributors as rapid fulfillment of orders, delivery and receivables from customers and their collection should be smooth for SKF to work efficiently. Pricing for the aftermarket services was decided in synchronization with distributors who were supplying products from other brands as well. All the post purchase services were provided through SKF’s 1200 distributors which reached out to 50 thousand end users. SKF’s business is divided into three divisions: Industrial, Automotive and Service, each serving different set of customer groups. Industrial served 30 different industries including machine tools’ oil and gas and mining accounted for 30 percent of the sales. Automobile served home appliance manufacturers and OEMs of cars and trucks and served the vehicle repair and maintenance aftermarket and accounted for 35 percent of the companies sales. Service division gave SKF one-third of its sales providing end users, mostly factories, with replacement bearings. It served the industry both directly (20 percent) and with the help of it distribution channels (80 percent) (Kashani & DuBrule, 2009). Developing a full awareness of your situation can help with both strategic planning and decision-making (Bhushan, N & RAI 2004).So doing a SWOT analysis of SKF could help understand the company and the environment it is operating in, better. A SWOT analysis guides you to identify the strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities of an organisation. The value of a company doesn’t only lie in the hands of the assets a company own but the perspective of its customers are of utmost importance (L aw 2010).  .The strength of the company is that the SKF is a well established company which has developed to be a brand communicating high quality premium products. It has large customer base serving 2 million customers and it has a variety that no customer could match. The company is in the business for more than a hundred years now and has a global market share of 20 percent with net sales

Saturday, October 5, 2019

Republicans and Democrats the U.S. deficit Research Paper

Republicans and Democrats the U.S. deficit - Research Paper Example Republicans on the other hand advocated for â€Å"sound finance† and decreasing taxes but also realized that there should be some form of deficit to support government programs in progress (Colander & Matthews, 59). The republican sound finance perspective is based on the economic view that if taxes are cut, there is an incentive to work harder, save and thus revenues are increased (Miroff, Siedelman, Swanstrom, & Deluca, 397). Therefore in addressing the growing national deficit, the Republican Party advocates for government spending habits to be curtailed, and also to amend tax legislation with a view to creating jobs and increasing salaries, reform Medicare and national security, and for the reformation of welfare programs ( The Democratic Party takes the position that the wealthy should be compelled to pay higher taxes, so that the government can fund programs meant to strengthen the middle and lower classes (Moving America Forward, 2012 Democratic National Pl atform). This paper evaluates how democrats and republicans propose to handle the current U.S. deficit and will determine which approach has more merit. During the 2012 Presidential elections, the Republican Party’s Presidential candidate Mitt Romney revealed a plan for dealing with the US deficit. The plan involved an eight-year program in which the federal budget would be balanced (Sahadi). The plan also included a promise that taxes would not be increased and at the same time, retiring Americans would be protected and more would be spent on defense (Rubin). This plan would obviously mean that other government programs would necessarily have to be cut. According to Rubin, we are at least assured by Romney that social security would not be subjected to cuts. However, other government programs could be vulnerable and this would include housing assistance, national parks, food stamps, and any other number of government programs. Wyler provides the details of the plans Romney h ad for the Republican Party’s approach to the U.S. deficit. To begin with, Romney planned to decrease income taxes by 20%. These income tax decreases would affect all Americans regardless of income status (Wyler). This of course is nothing new for the Republican Party. In 2001 and 2003, former republican president Bush introduced two successive tax cuts across the board which were primarily beneficial to the wealthy (Bartels). For the most part Americans are receptive to tax cuts because they are singly focused on their own â€Å"tax burdens† (Bartels, 15). The reality however was that 36% of the tax cuts would benefit the â€Å"richest 1 percent of Americans – a share almost identical to that received by the bottom 80 percent† (Hacker & Pierson, 33). It was estimated at the time that within 10 years, the income tax reductions would cost the U.S. $2.1 trillion in revenue (Hacker & Pierson). Middle and lower class Americans were sold on the tax reductions because in less than a month after the initial reductions, taxpayers were receiving rebate checks for at least $600 (Hacker & Pierson). This was one way of passing a policy that would primarily benefit the wealthy and yet

Friday, October 4, 2019

Theory and practices of negotiation Essay Example for Free

Theory and practices of negotiation Essay Definition When you hear the word negotiation, what comes first to mind? Negotiation is almost always an everyday transaction being dealt with by each and every one of us. Indeed, how often do you negotiate often, seldom, or never? Everything in life is negotiated, under all conditions, at all times: from asking your parents to bring you to the shopping malls to take out the morning garbage to driving in the express lane in rush-hour traffic, from determining what time to schedule an appointment with a client to deciding which tv show to watch with your family—to some extent, every facet of life is linked with one’s using of negotiation. Negotiation occurs whenever people exchange ideas with the intention of changing relationships or whenever they confer for agreement. Another definition expanding slightly the above meaning of negotiation is to note that negotiation is conducted neither to widen nor to breach the relationship, but to form a new or different configuration. In short, most of us are constantly involved in negotiations to one degree or another for a good part of any given day. Negotiation should be considered as a positive way of structuring the communication process. It is usually more than helpful in one’s work environment and in closing deals with new clients or prospects. Win-win negotiation skills are assets to a company especially if you will be in-charge of marketing new and pioneer products to the market. Effective negotiation helps you to resolve situations where what you want conflicts with what someone else wants. The aim of win-win negotiation is to find a solution that is acceptable to both parties, and leaves both parties feeling that theyve won, in some way, after the event. Preparing for a successful negotiation†¦ Depending on the scale of the disagreement, some preparation may be appropriate for conducting a successful negotiation. For small disagreements, excessive preparation can be counter-productive because it takes time that is better used elsewhere. It can also be seen as manipulative because, just as it strengthens your position, it can weaken the other person’s. However, if you need to resolve a major disagreement, and then make sure you prepare thoroughly. Using our free worksheet, think through the following points before you start negotiating: Goals: what do you want to get out of the negotiation? What do you think the other person wants? Trades: What do you and the other person have that you can trade? What do you each have that the other wants? What are you each comfortable giving away?   Alternatives: if you don’t reach agreement with the other person, what alternatives do you have? Are these good or bad? How much does it matter if you do not reach agreement? Does failure to reach an agreement cut you out of future opportunities? And what alternatives might the other person have? Relationships: what is the history of the relationship? Could or should this history impact the negotiation? Will there be any hidden issues that may influence the negotiation? How will you handle these? Expected outcomes: what outcome will people be expecting from this negotiation? What has the outcome been in the past, and what precedents have been set?   The consequences: what are the consequences for you of winning or losing this negotiation? What are the consequences for the other person? Power: who has what power in the relationship? Who controls resources? Who stands to lose the most if agreement isn’t reached? What power does the other person have to deliver what you hope for? †¢ Possible solutions: based on all of the considerations, what possible compromises might there be? Negotiating successfully†¦ The negotiation itself is a careful exploration of your position and the other person’s position, with the goal of finding a mutually acceptable compromise that gives you both as much of what you want as possible. Peoples positions are rarely as fundamentally opposed as they may initially appear the other person may have very different goals from the ones you expect! In an ideal situation, you will find that the other person wants what you are prepared to trade, and that you are prepared to give what the other person wants. If this is not the case and one person must give way, then it is fair for this person to try to negotiate some form of compensation for doing so – the scale of this compensation will often depend on the many of the factors we discussed above. Ultimately, both sides should feel comfortable with the final solution if the agreement is to be considered win-win. Only consider win-lose negotiation if you dont need to have an ongoing relationship with the other party as, having lost, they are unlikely to want to work with you again. Equally, you should expect that if they need to fulfill some part of a deal in which you have won, they may be uncooperative and legalistic about the way they do this.