Monday, September 30, 2019

Imagine you are Macbeth Essay

Q- Imagine you are Macbeth. Write a diary entry in which you express your thoughts and feelings at Act 1 Scene 7 and a later entry at some time later one, possible after meeting the doctor. Today Lady Macbeth has convinced me. We are going to ahead with the plot to kill the king. When she first told me about the plan I was very doubtful. I don’t think I will be able to live with myself with the guilt of killing the king. I know this is wrong. What about if we get caught? I am just weighing up the situation. Perhaps I don’t need to do anything to become king, â€Å"If chance will have me king, why, chance may crown me without stir†. I possess uncertainty of whether it is righteous to take the life of such a great king in order to feed my hunger for power. As I was thinking about this gesture, I left the chamber and decided not to do the deed. The idea of killing the king came from me first, this was when I heard the witches prophecies. When I first met the witches, they told me 3 predictions. They said, â€Å"All hail, Macbeth! Hail to thee, Thane of Glamis!† â€Å"All hail, Macbeth! Hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor!† â€Å"All hail, Macbeth! That shalt be king hereafter!† When I heard this I was shocked and couldn’t believe it. Banquo was with me and he asked them, â€Å"Which outward ye show? My noble partner you great with present grace, and great prediction of noble having and of royal hope that he slems rapt withal†. They then told us the final prediction, â€Å"Thou shalt get kings, though be none†. To us this meant that he will not be king but his children will. This was all so confusing. I know I am Thane of Glamis but how can I be the Thane of Cawdor? He still lives as a prosperous gentleman. Then there is me to become king. This is not within the prospect of my belief. Before we could say anything else they vanished. As Banquo and I were talking about the predictions, Ross came with some exciting news. He told me that as I fought well in the battle, I get the reward as the Thane of Cawdor. Mine and Banquo faces dropped with astonishment. â€Å"The Thane of Cawdor lives. Why do you dress me in borrowed robed?† I asked Ross. He then told us that he had died. At this point I had no idea of killing the king. I thought I would never be king and if I was to how would I? The witches offered me great enticement, but it is up to me to fail in the temptation or to be strong enough to resist their captivation. As I was thinking about this, Lady Macbeth came in. I knew this was the best time to tell her. I said, â€Å"We will proceed no further in this business†. She looked at me with great hate but I knew I said the right thing. â€Å"Was the hope drunk?† said Lady Macbeth, â€Å"Such I account thy love, art thou afeard to be the same in thin own act and valour, as thou art in desire?†. She was saying to me that I was drunk and I didn’t know what I was saying. She said that my love is worth nothing if I refuse to go through with the plan, and my love is as accountable as my in decisiveness. She also questions my masculinity and criticises my desire to be king. She used emotional blackmail to seduce me to proceed with this ambitious enterprise, â€Å"When you durst do it, then you were a man†. She makes an analogy to emphasise the importance of keeping my promise. After listening to her I felt very offended. I knew I had to do this or I will regret it all my life. I wanted to prove 3 things that I am a man, my love for my wife, and my desire to be king. To prove these I need to murder king Duncan, so I am. Today the doctor has come and said my wife is ill but he has no cure. This is very disturbing because I noticed she was acting a bit strange after we did that deed. After we murdered king Duncan she was very confident, unlike me. She even toke the daggers back into Duncan’s chamber for me and also she helps me wash the blood off my hands. She helped me pull me together psychologically. When I saw the ghost of Banquo, it caused me stress and concern. This put huge pressure on Lady Macbeth. Even though she cannot see the apparition herself she had to cover up for me. This put a lot of emotional pressure on her. She then tried to get me out of this strange state of mind by once again questioning my manhood, while at the same time giving the guests the excuse that I am not well. She takes control and tells all the guests to leave. I think she has kept her anger and fear in and since I have done more murders she feels more guilty and I have noticed she talks to herself. Since then her behaviour has changed and it shows carefully that her contrived mask slipped. In her sleepwalking she reveals the guilt and anxieties by which she is tortured. But her loyalty to me remains intact. She came to me once and said, â€Å"No more O’that, you mar all with this starting†, this was confusing. She has given all and now her present is overwhelming by the past, like what she said, â€Å"What’s done cannot be undone†. She is saying that we can’t change the past. But it was her who thought of the idea and it was her who convinced me. She is totally regretting it now. The doctor even couldn’t believe it, â€Å"I have two nights watched with you, but can perceive no truth in your report†. I don’t know what to do. I will just give some time to her and will see what will happen.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Emission Control

Emission Control Techniques 1. INTRODUCTION The need to control the emissions from automobiles gave rise to the computerization of the automobile. Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen are created during the combustion process and are emitted into the atmosphere from the tail pipe. There are also hydrocarbons emitted as a result of vaporization of gasoline and from the crankcase of the automobile. The clean air act of 1977 set limits as to the amount of each of these pollutants that could be emitted from an automobile. The manufacturers answer was the addition of certain pollution control devices and the creation of a self-adjusting engine. 1981 saw the first of these self-adjusting engines. They were called feedback fuel control systems. An oxygen sensor was installed in the exhaust system and would measure the fuel content of the exhaust stream. It then would send a signal to a microprocessor, which would analyze the reading and operate a fuel mixture or air mixture device to create the proper air/fuel ratio. As computer systems progressed, they were able to adjust ignition spark timing as well as operate the other emission controls that were installed on the vehicle. The computer is also capable of monitoring and diagnosing itself. If a fault is seen, the computer will alert the vehicle operator by illuminating a malfunction indicator lamp. The computer will at the same time record the fault in it's memory, so that a technician can at a later date retrieve that fault in the form of a code which will help them determine the proper repair. Some of the more popular emission control devices installed on the automobile are: EGR valve, Catalytic Converter, Air Pump, PCV Valve, Charcol Canitiser etc. Like SI engine CI engines are also major source of emission. Several experiments and technologies are developed and a lot of experiments are going on to reduce emission from CI engine. The main constituents causing diesel emission are smoke, soot, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxides etc. Unlike SI engine, emission produced by carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon in CI engine is small. Inorder to give better engine performance the emission must be reduce to a great extend. The emission can be reduced by using smoke suppressant additives, using particulate traps, SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) etc. 2. EMISSION CONTROL IN SI ENGINE 2. 1. Methods to reduce emission in SI engine. 2. 1. 1. Catalytic Converter Automotive emissions are controlled in three ways, one is to promote more complete combustion so that there are less by products. The second is to reintroduce excessive hydrocarbons back into the engine for combustion and the third is to provide an additional area for oxidation or combustion to occur. This additional area is called a catalytic converter. The catalytic converter looks like a muffler. It is located in the exhaust system ahead of the muffler. Inside the converter are pellets or a honeycomb made of platinum or palladium. The platinum or palladiums are used as a catalyst (a catalyst is a substance used to speed up a chemical process). As hydrocarbons or carbon monoxide in the exhaust are passed over the catalyst, it is chemically oxidized or converted to carbon dioxide and water. As the converter works to clean the exhaust, it develops heat. The dirtier the exhaust, the harder the converter works and the more heat that is developed. In some cases the converter can be seen to glow from excessive heat. If the converter works this hard to clean a dirty exhaust it will destroy itself. Also leaded fuel will put a coating on the platinum or palladium and render the converter ineffective. 2. 1. 2. PCV Valve The purpose of the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system, is to take the vapors produced in the crankcase during the normal combustion process, and redirecting them into the air/fuel intake system to be burned during combustion. These vapors dilute the air/fuel mixture, they have to be carefully controlled and metered so as not to affect the performance of the engine. This is the job of the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) valve. At idle, when the air/fuel mixture is very critical, just a little of the vapors are allowed in to the intake system. At high speed when the mixture is less critical and the pressures in the engine are greater, more of the vapors are allowed in to the intake system. When the valve or the system is clogged, vapors will back up into the air filter housing or at worst, the excess pressure will push past seals and create engine oil leaks. If the wrong valve is used or the system has air leaks, the engine will idle rough, or at worst engine oil will be sucked out of the engine. 2. 1. 3. EGR Valve The purpose of the exhaust gas recirculation valve (EGR) valve is to meter a small amount of exhaust gas into the intake system; this dilutes the air/fuel mixture so as to lower the combustion chamber temperature. Excessive combustion chamber temperature creates oxides of nitrogen, which is a major pollutant. While the EGR valve is the most effective method of controlling oxides of nitrogen, in it's very design it adversely affects engine performance. The engine was not designed to run on exhaust gas. For this reason the amount of exhaust entering the intake system has to be carefully monitored and controlled. This is accomplished through a series of electrical and vacuum switches and the vehicle computer. Since EGR action reduces performance by diluting the air /fuel mixture, the system does not allow EGR action when the engine is cold or when the engine needs full power. [pic] Fig. 2. 4. EGR Valve 2. 1. 4. Evaporative Controls Gasoline evaporates quite easily. In the past these evaporative emissions were vented into the atmosphere. 0% of all HC emissions from the automobile are from the gas tank. In 1970 legislation was passed, prohibiting venting of gas tank fumes into the atmosphere. An evaporative control system was developed to eliminate this source of pollution. The function of the fuel evaporative control system is to trap and store evaporative emissions from the gas tank and carburetor. A charcoal canister is used to trap the fuel vapors. The fuel vapors adhere to the charcoal, until the engine is started, and engine vacuum can be used to draw the vapors into the engine, so that they can be burned along with the fuel/air mixture. This system requires the use of a sealed gas tank filler cap. This cap is so important to the operation of the system, that a test of the cap is now being integrated into many state emission inspection programs. Pre-1970 cars released fuel vapors into the atmosphere through the use of a vented gas cap. Today with the use of sealed caps, redesigned gas tanks are used. The tank has to have the space for the vapors to collect so that they can then be vented to the charcoal canister. A purge valve is used to control the vapor flow into the engine. The purge valve is operated by engine vacuum. One common problem with this system is that the purge valve goes bad and engine vacuum draws fuel directly into the intake system. This enriches the fuel mixture and will foul the spark plugs. Most charcoal canisters have a filter that should be replaced periodically. This system should be checked when fuel mileage drops. 2. 1. 5. Air Injection Since no internal combustion engine is 100% efficient, there will always be some unburned fuel in the exhaust. This increases hydrocarbon emissions. To eliminate this source of emissions an air injection system was created. Combustion requires fuel, oxygen and heat. Without any one of the three combustion cannot occur. Inside the exhaust manifold there is sufficient heat to support combustion, if we introduce some oxygen than any unburned fuel will ignite. This combustion will not produce any power, but it will reduce excessive hydrocarbon emissions. Unlike in the combustion chamber, this combustion is uncontrolled, so if the fuel content of the exhaust is excessive, explosions that sound like popping will occur. There are times when under normal conditions, such as deceleration, when the fuel content is excessive. Under these conditions we would want to shut off the air injection system. This is accomplished through the use of a diverter valve, which instead of shutting the air pump off diverts the air away from the exhaust manifold. Since all of this is done after the combustion process is complete, this is one emission control that has no effect on engine performance. The only maintenance that is required is a careful inspection of the air pump drive belt. 2. 2. Modification in SI engine to reduce emission. †¢ Multi-port fuel injection system to completely replace carburetors. †¢ Electronic engine management to accurately regulate fuel supply to cylinders by sensing various engine parameters. 4-valve system to replace 2-valve system, improved combustion chamber design and improved inlet manifold design for axial stratification of charge. †¢ Turbo-charged (TC) and Turbo-charged After Cooled (TCAC) engines. †¢ Turbo-compounded engines; they are found to be upto 18 per cent better than the conventional engines. †¢ After treatment, catalytic co nverter and exhaust gas recycling. Some future directions for engines are: †¢ Lean burn technology, air-fuel ratio as lean as 22:1 is possible with 4-valves, high swirl and squish generated turbulence. †¢ Use of ceramic components (e. g. low density Silicon Nitride, Si3N4) such as piston pins, valves, blades in turbochargers. †¢ Variable Valve Activation (VVA) providing improved charge control of SI engines, reducing fuel consumption by 5 per cent at low/medium speed and  13  Ã‚   per cent at full engine speed. †¢ 3. EMISSION CONTROL IN CI ENGINE 3. 1. Methods to reduce emission in CI engine 3. 1. 1 Particulate filter. Particulate filters are highly effective in the elimination of particulate matter (PM10) or soot from diesel exhaust. It has a variety of filter coatings and designs, depending of the engine application and duty cycle. . 1. 2. Selective catalytic reduction Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx (generally abbreviated with SCR deNOx) is a very pow erful technology to reduce the NOx emission and fuel consumption of truck and passenger car diesel engines. The European truck manufacturers starting in October 2005, when EURO-4 emissions legislation enters into force, will introduce SCR deNOx on a large scale. With SCR deNOx a 32. 5% aqueous urea solution is injected upstream of the catalyst. Urea which converts to NH3 (ammonia) in the hot exhaust gases reacts with NOx to form harmless N2 and H2O. The urea quantity needs to be precisely dosed as a function of the engine NOx output and the catalyst operating conditions. 3. 1. 3. Smoke Suppressant additives There are a number of additives, which are added in order to reduce the smoke from CI engine. HYDRAX ATH (hydrated alumina), HYDRAMAX (magnesium hydroxides and hydroxy-carbonates), CHARMAX LS (low smoke), CHARMAX LS ZST & LS ZHS (zinc stannates & zinc hydroxystannates), CHARMAX AOM & MO (ammonium octamolybdate & molybdic oxide), CHARMAX ZB200 & ZB400 (zinc, magnesium, and calcium borates) etc. This reduces the amount of smoke produced by various chemical reactions. The smoke produced can also be controlled by deairating, maintenance, catalytic mufflers, fumigation etc. 3. 1. 4. Control of odour It is very difficult to estimate the odour produced by the diesel engine because the lack of standard tests has not allowed much work to be done in this direction. Catalytic odour control system muffler and or catalyst container are under development and it has been found that certain oxidation catalysts if used under favorable conditions reduce odour intensity. But the tests are still going on. 3. 1. 5. Exhaust Gas and After treatment Modeling While the diesel (compression ignition) engine is more efficient than the conventional spark ignition engine from a thermodynamics standpoint, it has the potential for a large negative environmental impact. The lean combustion of these devices provides the perfect environment for the production of NOx; relatively high temperatures and abundant oxygen. In addition, direct injection of fuel into the combustion chamber creates rich fuel pockets that can cause the formation of particulate matter (soot). Recently these emissions have come under increased scrutiny from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Their radical nature (smog) in the atmosphere and subsequent health hazards has caused the EPA to act to increase the regulation standards for both 2007 and 2010. Unlike the three-way catalysts currently used on spark-ignition based platforms, diesel after treatment systems will not utilize one device for all problematic emissions. Instead, devices are targeted to take care of only one or a few issues at a time. For instance, Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) might take care of the particulate matter while a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) will eliminate the CO and HC and a Lean NOx Trap is used for the NOx emissions. Until now, diesel engine manufacturers have been able to meet the legislation though in-cylinder technology. The proposed EPA legislation has caused the diesel industry to work on finding cost-efficient after treatment technology while still looking in-cylinder for improvements. 3. 2. Modification in CI engine to reduce emission 3. 2. 1. Commercial vehicle emission control Several improvements are needed. These could be achieved through redesigning of engines and application of new technologies:  · Improvement in fuel injection system and use of higher injection pressure. . . Common rail system unit injections instead of multi-cylinder fuel injection pumps.  · Electronically controlled injection system to provide variable injection timing with good dynamic response to engine load, speed, and temperature.  · Improved cylinder head design, inlet port, re-entrant combustion chambers.  · 4-Valve system to improve volumetric efficiency and provide better mixing of fuel and air. Turbo-charged and Turbo-charged aftercooled engines to provide higher specific power, better fuel economy, and less emission pollution.  · After-treatment, particulate traps, and catalytic converters. 3. 2. 2. Passenger Car Diesel Engine In India, Indirect Injection (IDI) diesel engines are commonly used in passenger cars. Due to the pricing policies of fuels, the running c ost of diesel cars is lower than those of petrol cars. Diesel engines are popular for taxis, most of which are retrofitted by diesel engines. Private cars with OE diesel engines are also in demand. Major directions for engine development to control different pollutants are as follows:  · HC emission control requires, – low sac volume nozzles; – Complete combustion of injected fuel; – minimum lube consumption.  · NOx emission control is helped by, – cooling of intake air before entering the engine; – Retarded combustion; and – Moderate air motion.  · Particulate emission control is helped by, – high injection pressure; – fine fuel atomization; – intensive air motion; – high excess air; and – minimum lube consumption. 4. EMISSION CONTROL NORMS IN SI AND CI ENGINE The first Indian emission regulations were idle emission limits which became effective in 1989. These idle emission regulations were soon replaced by mass emission limits for both gasoline (1991) and diesel (1992) vehicles, which were gradually tightened during the 1990’s. Since the year 2000, India started adopting European emission and fuel regulations for four-wheeled light-duty and for heavy-duty vehicles. Indian own emission regulations still apply to two- and three-wheeled vehicles. 4. 1. Emission control norms in SI engine. Table. 4. 1: EMISSION CONTROL NORMS IN SI ENGINE Level of Emission | 2/3 Wheelers ## | 4 Wheelers | |Norms | | | | | 2-Stroke | 4-Stroke | 4-Stroke | | |* Intake, exhaust, | |* Intake, exhaust, | | |combustion optimization |* 4-Stroke engine |combustion optimization | |Euro I /India 2000 |* Catalytic converter |technology |*Carburetor optimization | | |* Secondary air injection |* Hot tube |* Fuel njection | |Euro II / |* Catalytic converter |* Seco ndary air |* Catalytic converter | |Bharat Stage II |* CNG / LPG |injection |* Fixed EGR | | |(3 wheelers only) |* CNG / LPG |* Multi-valve | | | |(3 wheelers only) |* CNG/LPG | | | | |* Fuel injection +catalytic | | |* Fuel injection |* Fuel injection |converter | | |* Catalytic converter |* Carburetor+ |* Variable EGR | |EuroIII/ Bharat Stage | |catalytic converter |* Variable valve timing | |III | | |* Multi-valve | | | | |* On-board diagnostics system | | | | |* CNG/LPG | | | | |* Direct cylinder | |Euro IV / |* To be developed |* Lean burn |injection | |Bharat Stage IV | |* Fuel injection+ |* Multi-brick | | | |catalytic converter |catalytic converter | | | | |* On-board diagnostics system | ## Euro norms are not applicable for 2 / 3 wheelers in India 4. 2. Emission control norms in CI engine | | | |Level Of Emission Norms Technology Options | | | · Retarded injection timing | | | · Open/re-entrant bowl, | |Euro I / India 2000 | · Intake, exhaust and combustion optim isation | | | · FIP~700-800 bar, low sac injectors | | | · High swirl | | | · Naturally aspirated | | | · Turbocharging | | | · Injection pressure > 800 bar, moderate swirl | | | · High pressure inline / rotary pumps, injection rate control | |Euro II / | · VO nozzles | |Bharat Stage II | · Re-entrant combustion chamber | | | · Lube oil consumption control | | | · Inter-cooling (optional, depends on specific power), | | | · EGR (may be required for high speed car engines) | | | · Conversion to CNG with catalytic converter | | | · Multi valve, | | | · Low swirl – high injection pressure > 120 bar | | | · Rotary pumps, pilot injection rate shaping | | | · Electronic fuel injection | |Euro III / | · Critical lube oil consumption control |Bharat Stage III | · Variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) | | | · Inter-cooling | | | · Oxycat & EGR | | | · CNG/LPG | | | · High specific power output | | | · Particulate t rap | | | · NOx trap | | | · On board Diagnostics system | |Euro IV / | · Common rail injection-injection pressure>1600 bar | |Bharat Stage IV | · Fuel Cell | | | · CNG/LPG | On October 6, 2003, the National Auto Fuel Policy has been announced, which envisages a phased program for introducing Euro 2 – 4 emission and fuel regulations by 2010. The implementation schedule of EU emission standards in India is summarized in Table 4. 3 The above standards apply to all new 4-wheel vehicles sold and registered in the respective regions. In addition, the National Auto Fuel Policy introduces certain emission requirements for interstate buses with routes originating or terminating in Delhi or the other 10 cities. For 2-and 3-wheelers, Bharat Stage II (Euro 2) is be applicable from April 1, 2005 and Stage III (Euro 3) standards would come in force preferably from April 1, 2008, but not later than April 1, 2010. Table. 4. 3. INDIAN EMISSION STANDARDS | Indian Emission Standards (4-Wheel Vehicles) | | Standard | Reference | Date | Region | India 2000 |Euro 1 |2000 |Nationwide | |Bharat Stage II |Euro 2 |2001 |NCR*, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai | | | |2003-04 |NCR*, 10 Cities†  | | | |2004-05 |Nationwide | |Bharat Stage III |Euro 3 |2005-04 |NCR*, 10 Cities†  | | | |2004-10 |Nationwide | |Bharat Stage  IV |Euro 4 |2010-04 |NCR*, 10 Cities†  | * National Capital Region (Delhi) Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur and Agra The above standards apply to all new 4-wheel veh icles sold and registered in the respective regions. In addition, the National Auto Fuel Policy introduces certain emission requirements for interstate buses with routes originating or terminating in Delhi or the other 10 cities. For 2-and 3-wheelers, Bharat Stage II (Euro 2) will be applicable from April 1, 2005 and Stage III (Euro 3) standards would come in force preferably from April 1, 2008, but not later than April 1, 2010. Emission standards for new heavy-duty diesel engines—applicable to vehicles of GVW > 3,500 kg—are listed in Table 4. 4. Emissions are tested over the ECE R49 13-mode test (through the Euro II stage). Table 4. 4 | |EMISSION STANDARDS FOR DIESEL TRUCK AND BUS ENGINES, G/KWH | |Year | Emission standards for light-duty diesel vehicles (GVW ? 3,500 kg) are summarized in Table 3. Ranges of emission limits refer to different classes (by reference mass) of light commercial vehicles; compare the EU light-duty vehicle emission standards page for details on the Euro 1 and later standards. The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW ? 2,500 kg; up to 6 seats). |Table 4. | |EMISSION STANDARDS FOR LIGHT-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES, G/KM | |Year | The test cycle has been the ECE + EUDC for low power vehicles (with maximum speed limited to 90 km/h). Before 2000, emissions were measured over an Indian test cycle. Engines for use in light-duty vehicles can be also emission tested using an engine dynamometer. The respective emission standards are listed in Table 4. 3 |Table 4. 6 | |EMISSION STANDARDS FOR LIGHT-DUTY DIESEL ENGINES, G/KWH | |Year | Emission standards for gasoline vehicles (GVW ? ,500 kg) are summarized in Table 5. Ranges of emission limits refer to different classes of light commercial vehicles (compare the EU light-duty vehicle emission standards page). The lowest limit in each range applies to passenger cars (GVW ? 2,500 kg; up to 6 seats). |Table 4. 7 | |EMISSION STANDARDS FOR GASOLINE VEHICLES (GVW ? 3,500 KG), G/KM | |Year |Reference |CO |HC |HC+NOx | |1991 |- |14. 3-27. |2. 0-2. 9 |- | |1996 |- |8. 68-12. 4 |- |3. 00-4. 36 | |1998* |- |4. 34-6. 20 |- |1. 50-2. 18 | |2000 |Euro 1 |2. 72-6. 90 |- |0. 97-1. 70 | |2005†  |Euro 2 |2. 2-5. 0 |- |0. 5-0. 7 | |* for catalytic converter fitted vehicles | |†  earlier introduction in selected regions, see Table 4. | Gasoline vehicles must also meet an evaporative (SHED) limit of 2 g/test (effective 2000). Emission standards for 3- and 2-wheel gasoline vehicles are listed in the following tables. |Table 4. 8 | |EMISSION STANDARDS FOR 3-WHEEL GASOLINE VEHICLES, G/KM | |Year |CO |HC |HC+NOx | |1991 |12-30 |8-12 |- | |1996 |6. 5 |- |5. 40 | |2000 |4. 00 |- |2. 00 | |Table 4. 9 | |EMISSION STANDARDS FOR 2-WHEEL GASOLINE VEHICLES, G/KM | |Year |CO |HC |HC+NOx | |1991 |12-30 |8-12 |- | |1996 |4. 0 |- |3. 60 | |2000 |2. 00 |- |2. 00 | CONCLUSION Efforts are being made to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and maximize the utilization of environment-friendly energy sources and fuels for meeting energy needs. In India, the demand for oil for the transport sector is estimated to increase over the next decade. This sector is the largest consumer of petroleum products . Government is providing policy support, fiscal incentives and regulatory measures for development of alternative energy vehicles and fuels. Battery operated vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, hydrogen powered vehicles and bio-fuel powered vehicles have been identified in this context. The development activities of such fuels and vehicles need to be further encouraged particularly in view of their potential to protect the environment. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) use the combination of engine of a conventional vehicle with electric motor powered by traction batteries and/or fuel cell. This combination helps in achieving both the energy and environmental goals. The deployment of a large number of this type of vehicles would help us in terms of environmental benefits, reduction of oil consumption and reduction in emissions. In hybrid electric vehicles propulsion, energy is available from more than one source of energy. The three configurations of HEV are series hybrid system, parallel hybrid system and split hybrid system. Fuel cells produce electricity, employing reaction between hydrogen and oxygen gases, electrochemically. Fuel cells are efficient, environmentally benign, compact, modular and reliable for power generation. Different type of Fuel cells currently under development are the Protons Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFCs), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs),Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) etc. Hydrogen is receiving worldwide attention as a clean fuel and efficient energy storage medium for automobiles. Hydrogen can replace or supplement oil used in road transportation. Bio-fuel is an efficient, environment friendly, 100 per cent natural energy alternative to petroleum fuels9-10. In view of the potential of being produced from several agricultural sources and because of its low emission characteristics, bio-fuels in recent years are receiving a great deal of attention as a substitute to petroleum fuels. Ethanol and bio-diesel are the two bio-fuels which are being looked upon as the potential fuels for surface transportation. REFERENCES 1. www. howstuffworks. com 2. www. dieselnet. in 3. www. auto101. com 4. www. wikipedia. com 5. Mathur & Sharma. ; Internal Combustion Engine, Dhanpat rai publications. pp 774- 778 1. SEMINAR TOPIC FROM :: www. edufive. com/seminartopics. html

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Business btec level 3 unit 2 P1 Essay

In this task I am going to be defining the recruitment process and documentation components. Recruitment is a process in which allows businesses to obtain selected qualified people to attend to a job vacancy. The recruitment process is the steps in order to successfully pick suitable employees that match the specifications. There are typically seven steps included in the recruitment process to ensure the right person is selected: There are usually four main types of documentation that is included in the recruitment processÍ ¾ job description, person specification, application form and legal contract. The job description is a document stating the initial role of the job that is being advertised and allows candidates to know what they are applying for and for them to prepare for their interview. Job descriptions are used through all stages of the recruitment process as a description is often included in the advertisement, a candidate will then see the expectations again during an interview along with successful candidates revisiting this document when they begin the job. The job description usually states the main roles and responsibilities that the job requires and the hours that you are expected to work. Person specification is a document in which allows employers to figure out whether applicants are worth interviewing as they state the essential and desirable requirements includingÍ ¾ skills, experience, qualifications and knowledge. The person specification is drawn up at the same time as the job description and is most likely to also be available on the advertisement. Along with the job description, person specification is also a component of the short ­listing stage however it may not be revisited again. Application forms are the most typical way of applying for a job however there are two other different forms of application documentationÍ ¾ CV and cover letter. A CV is used to summarise your qualifications, experience and any other information. A cover letter is usually attached with your CV or application form to basically sell yourself to the employer and let them know why you’re the perfect candidate. Application forms are usually used when you’re applying for the job and then are revisited in your interview. The last form of documentation for the application process is the legal contract in which is used when you receive the job. The legal document is between you and the employer and states all the terms and conditions including the shifts, rules and regulations and expe

Friday, September 27, 2019

Discuss the limited circumstances in which a duty of care might be Essay

Discuss the limited circumstances in which a duty of care might be imposed on a defendant for an omission - Essay Example The main reason why courts are reluctant to impose duties to act may be seen in the arguments made in the case of Stovin v. Wise. The court in Stovin found that requiring somebody to act is an invasion of individual freedom. Moreover, the court also found that the duty prevent harm or render assistance to others is one which is ascribed to a wide range of people, so to single out a person for failing to act is unjust, because one person should not be singled out to be held liable if there are a number of people who have the same duty. Moreover, imposing a duty on third parties for omissions is not generally done because of market distortions which might result. This is assuming that an activity should bear its own costs, and if some of these costs are imposed on others, then the activity might appear to be cheaper than it really is. Requiring compensation for negligent conduct reduces this effect. However, there is not this justification to impose liability on a person who is not vol unteering to spend resources on somebody else, therefore that person may not be rewarded. Just as the person is not rewarded, that person also cannot be punished, unless there is a special reason to do so (Stovin v. Wise). That said, there are exceptions to this general rule, which is the subject of this paper, which will examine these exceptions. Moreover, the cases where omissions were not held to be actionable may further illustrate why courts are hesitant to impose liability for omissions. Discussion There are exceptions to the general rule that omissions are not enough to give rise to negligence actions. For instance, if someone undertakes a duty to assume responsibility for somebody else, then the duty of care does arise, and an omission may give rise to a negligence claim. This was established by the case of Barrett v. MOD [1995] 1 WLR 1217. In the Barrett case, the claimant’s husband died after a night of heavy drinking. At some point, a Petty Officer Wells was instru cted to take the claimant’s husband back to the base and look after him. Although the Petty Officer did look after the claimant’s husband, the claimant’s husband was found dead at 2:30 AM. The Barrett court found that the claimant’s husband was responsible only for himself, but when the senior officer assumed responsibility for him, then the duty of care arose, and the senior officer was then responsible to go ahead and give appropriate supervision over the claimant’s husband. Therefore, once he took responsibility, if he did not act, in that he did not go and check on the man, then this omission would give rise to liability. Another example is the well-known case of Stansbie v. Troman [1948] 2 K.B. 48. In this case, a decorator was working on a house and went to buy wallpaper, leaving the door unlocked. Thieves came in and entered while he was away. The decorator was found to be negligent because he had a duty to take reasonable care to guard agai nst thieves entering the dwelling. Therefore, in the Stansbie case, although the ultimate cause of the theft was the positive act of the thief, it was the omission – the failure to lock the door – which made the decorator liable, because he was under the duty of care to make sure that the house was secure before he left. In this case, it was because there was a special relationship between the decorator and the claimant, because there was

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Critical Commentary on Orientalism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Critical Commentary on Orientalism - Essay Example According to Ghazoul (2004) orientalism can also be said to be descriptive of the dissemination of matters concerning geopolitical awareness into scholarly, aesthetic, sociological, economic, and historical texts. Edward Said introduced different meanings into the words ‘occident’ and ‘orient’. From his discourse, it would seem that the term ‘Orient’ basically evolved into being a negative construal of Eastern cultures by the Western culture. Edward Said was deeply interested in the scholarly study of African, Middle Eastern, and Asian cultures and history. He emphasised that his understanding of the concept of orientalism was not merely representative of modern intellectual as well as social and political cultures in Middle Eastern nations (Orrells 2012). Orientalism, to a large extent, deals in studies into the Eastern cultures between the 19th and 20th centuries. As an area of study, it remains controversial because it has to ties to the archaic beliefs that characterised colonialist or imperialist regimes. According to academic scholars like Mellor (2004) the whole concept of the ‘Orient’ is tied with how the West defines itself. In defining aspects of the concept of orientalism, Said tried to point out that one of the major factors that defined this issue was the reality of the divergence of power between colonisers and the colonised tribes more in the past. According to Irwin (2006) there are many Weste rn ideological preconceptions that are hidden within the concepts of orientalism.

Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering Coursework

Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering - Coursework Example The flow through the pipe could either be laminar or turbulent and so the experiment will be directed to distinguishing the kind of flow. Flow should be started through the pipe being investigated. The pipe must have manometers installed on both ends of the region being investigated. The diameter of the pipe must be measured beforehand. The discharged fluid should be collected in an appropriate container that can aid volume measurement. A stop watch should be used to monitor the total time required for a certain volume to flow. Starting with an empty container, the fluid should be allowed to flow through the pipe into the container. The experiment should be timed sufficiently to read the manometers on both ends. The flow should be stopped when enough volume of fluid has been collected in the container for measurement. The time required for the total flow should be noted along with the total volume of fluid collected. These values will be used to generate the flow rate. The readings o n the manometers will be used to generate the total head loss value. At least ten distinct experiments must be carried out by varying the flow rate inside the pipe. Using the measurements above in the formula the Reynold’s number can be calculated as: R_e=Ï ud/ÃŽ ¼ And velocity as: u=4Q/(Ï€d^2 ) The velocity should be plotted against the head loss. If the head loss is proportional to the velocity then the flow is laminar while if the head loss if exponentially related to the velocity then the flow is turbulent. The Reynold’s number will confirm this investigation. The flow through the pipe could either be laminar or turbulent and so the experiment will be directed to distinguishing the kind of flow. Flow should be started through the pipe being investigated. The pipe must have manometers installed on both ends of the region being investigated. The diameter of the pipe must be measured beforehand. The discharged fluid should be collected in an appropriate container that can aid volume measurement. A stop watch should be used to monitor the total time required for a certain volume to flow. Starting with an empty container, the fluid should be allowed to flow through the pipe into the container. The experiment should be timed sufficiently to read the manometers on both ends. The flow should be stopped when enough volume of fluid has been collected in the container for measurement. The time required for the total flow should be noted along with the total volume of fluid collected. These values will be used to generate the flow rate. The readings o n the manometers will be used to generate the total head loss value. At least ten distinct experiments must be carried out by varying the flow rate inside the pipe. Using the measurements above in the formula the Reynold’s number can be calculated as: R_e=Ï ud/ÃŽ ¼ And velocity as: u=4Q/(Ï€d^2 ) The velocity should be plotted against the head loss. If the head loss is proportional to the velocity then the flow is laminar while if the head loss if exponentially related to the velocity then the flow is turbulent.... These strains may easily be measured using strain gauges. However, the empirical readouts from the strain gauges cannot be used directly at all because the values need to be calibrated first. The first step would be to determine the incremental loads that must be applied to the structure in question and also the maximum applicable load. The structural member that has been utilized to create the pin framework structure must be used to calibrate the strain gauge. A straight piece of the concerned structural member should be loaded incrementally following the pattern of loading outline above. Corresponding values of strain must be tabulated accordingly including the value of strain at no loading. Next the framework under investigation should be loaded using the same increments of load up to the maximum applicable load. The values of strain for the structural members of the framework should be noted off the strain gauges. The total set of readings must include the values for strain at no loading. The values of the calibration structural member should be utilized to calculate the calibration factor(s) for the strain produced versus applied load. Next the strain values of the actual framework being tested should be tabulated using the calibration factor(s) from above. The values of strain versus load can then be plotted for the framework in question. These plots can then be utilized to interpolate the loading values for given values of strain for any applied load. This experiment is based on the assumption that the loading of structural members lies within elastic limits and that the pins used to do not display excessive play or rigidity but are free to

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Oral Colonization of Mutans Streptococci in Young Children Research Paper

Oral Colonization of Mutans Streptococci in Young Children - Research Paper Example The bacterial properties (virulence factors) of these organisms favorable for colonization Can acquiring MS at early age influence incidences of dental caries in later years MS transmission routes. Whether nonmutans in oral flora affect colonization and or action of Mutans. Research question: what are the host and microbe factors influencing oral colonization by MS in young children. Materials and Methods: In the course of research paper preparation the microbiological as well as molecular biological approaches taken by the researchers would be presented. These are used to differentiate between mutans and nonmutans from oral cavity, production of mutacin and glucan, identification of different MS genotypes etc. The methods of longitudinal surveys used in various studies are also part of the intended research. Results and discussion: The results obtained in the chosen host and bacterial factors responsible for MS colonization would be presented. For the convenience of explanation of results the results and discussion are combined in this paper. The manuscript would contain at least a total of 7-8 tables and figures. These are integrated in the text and attached as per the instructions. The title page with author's (of this paper) name and affiliation, abstract, acknowledgement and a bibliography of all sources of literature also to be included in the paper. FULL PAPER Author (s): Affiliation(s): Oral colonization of mutans streptococci (MS) in young children ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate influence of host and bacterial factors on oral colonization by MS in young children. It was observed during the course of investigation that children acquired MS by horizontal as well as vertical transmission. More... As the report stresses  various surveys, in many countries, have indicated presence of a type of dental caries, early childhood caries. These decays of primary teeth lead to dental abscesses and toothache which often requires anesthesia for treatment. Colonization by mutans streptococci (MS), particularly S. mutans and S. sobrinus, is the major cause of ECC in young children. There are disputes regarding time of entry of oral MS in young children and whether these are part of normal oral microflora or not. Since colonization by MS could be targeted to relieve young children from experiences of ECC, the paper would critically discuss host and microbial factors important for transmission and colonization of these bacteria.  From this paper it is clear that  mutans was also detected in predentate children, despite a low caries rate. Together, these reports suggest that children may be colonized by S. mutans before the "window of infectivity" opens. A predentate infant is not likel y to have MS in salivary flow since swallowing occurs fast while bacterial divisions are only 2-4 times. MS could instead persist by forming adherent colonies on mucosal surfaces.   Tanner and coworkers have demonstrated that the fur ­rows of the tongue appear to be an important ecological niche for oral MS.   It is contrary to the prior observations that MS colonization occurs only at the time of primary teeth eruption.   

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Critical analysis of the potential challenges that newly qualified Essay

Critical analysis of the potential challenges that newly qualified children's nurse might face - Essay Example This implies that the nurses responsible for the nursing of children have greater stress and greater challenges to encounter as they have greater responsibilities. Enhancing the focus of the study in this context, it can be realized that children’s nurses who are newly qualified are encountered with greater number of challenges while they perform their roles of taking care of a small child. The initial years for the children’s nurses in their career have been observed to be under the influence of tremendous stress (Kirpal, 72). There are several conflicts in the minds of the newly qualified nurses when they enter an organization and start working. These conflicts are associated with the different values and cultures that the individual organizations follow, their disciplines, and the given responsibilities (Nash, Lemcke & Sacre, 49). A qualified nurse is expected to perform her responsibilities with professional expertise and involve leadership roles, maintenance of sta ndards, take decisions based on ethics and justice, consider responsibilities sincerely as well as convey lessons to others (Burton & Ormrod, 1-2). Out of the several challenges that the newly qualified children’s nurses might have to encounter, the present study would discuss on three primary issues related to time management, leadership activities, and accountability of the nurses. Thus the study focuses on the above mentioned three key issues and discusses the effects of these potential challenges on newly qualified children’s nurses, trying to provide with some probable recommendations as well. Newly Qualified Children’s Nurses: Nursing is a highly challenging job and requires significant competency among the qualified nurses (Duffy, Dresser & Fulton, 15). Once the nurses have completed their courses they are eligible to become registered nurses. Thereafter it is essential that these nurses are prepared to perform their roles efficiently. The environment in which they work, the nature and pressure of the work, the organization’s expectations from them, the understanding of the rules and disciplines of the health organization the nurses are associated with, managing the health of patients, the small children having severe diseases and getting associated with the work culture with due responsibility, are some of the factors that are highly significant and might require support for the newly qualified children’s nurses (Chung, Wong & Cheung, 410). As soon as a newly qualified nurse joins an organization, she is supposed to take few weeks before she has all the responsibilities to be performed by her. These roles include following other nurses to understand the performing arts, undertaking responsibilities of patients, and incorporating the basic roles in their work like proper communication, hygiene, maintaining privacy and decorum, managing stress, safety, proper nutrition and suitable environment of patients (Hole, 24-26). Thus it can be realized that newly qualified nurses have greater responsibilities not only in terms of performing, but as well as in learning and becoming expert in the field of their roles and duties. This is turn can be understood to create potential challenges, as discussed later in the report, that are required to managed efficiently by the nurses to overcome all barriers and gain success in their achievements.

Monday, September 23, 2019

BUS Unit 3 Individual Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

BUS Unit 3 Individual Project - Essay Example Since then the firm has contributed in production of a large number of commercial cars (PRLOG, 2013). Several automotive components are also manufactured by the company. Apart from America, Ford Motors operates across all the continents in the globe. It offers a substantial amount of employment opportunities in all the economies in which it operates (Webster, 1995). Perhaps, that is the reason for which the Australian government fears for job losses, when Ford decided to cease its manufacturing outlet in Geelong by 2013 due to high manufacturing costs (News Geelong, 2013). Despite of being an American company, Ford cars were visible in the streets of London since 1903. At present its European branch serves 42 countries in the continent with excellent cars, buses and trucks (Banham, 2002). Answer 2: Ford Motors Company has many comparative advantages in the highly competitive market of automobile industry. It has an establish business and enjoys the benefits of a big learning curve. I ts expertise has introduced varied cars in terms of designs and prices, so it targets consumers of all income groups. It comprises of a big pool of resources, like 160000 employees across the world. Its visibility and marketing strategies are excellent. It participates in sponsorship programs in sports events like Formula 1 and taps the young potential consumers. As the company enjoys a wide customer base, it experiences lower cost of production due to economies of scale. The unique design and quality of the Ford cars have substantially helped its brand worth in the market (Moffett, n.d.). Answer 3: The current recession and the economic crisis in the European nations have reduced the overall circulation of money in the economy (Rogers, 2001). Low purchasing powers have created detrimental effect in the aggregate demand for cars in the automobile industry. Ford can always use its experienced technical expertise to feature new models of cars that are less in price and are affordable in the current crisis situations. The company has large pool of financial resources, these resources of the company should be utilized to open more branches and tap the potential customers of the emerging economies in the world like China and India. This would help the company augment its sales in this scarce epoch (Volti, 2004). Answer 4: The governments of most of the nations impose lot of rules and regulations in the automobile industry, primarily due to issues relating to environment. The automobile companies are now forced to pay higher taxes of manufacturing traditional petrol cars. This is a pivotal reason for which giant firms like Ford are engaging in the manufacture of hybrid or electric cars. The gross manufacturing costs of such cars are very high and require high investments in its required car technologies. The total number of consumers for such expensive cars is also less. ‘Focus Electric’ is the electric car manufactured by Ford (Ford, 2013). The company desires to successfully launch the pricy car in 2014 worldwide. The taxes imposed by the governments on companies like Ford are high as Ford cars are considered as luxury items. This reduces the economic reserves of the company, which could be otherwise used in the innovation and development purposes. Since the company operates across many nations in the world, it faces the exchange rate or currency fluctuations risks. Like the high value of Australian

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Environmental Pollution Essay Example for Free

Environmental Pollution Essay Environmental pollution is not a new fact. It is one of the biggest problems the world faces today. It is a big matter which is disturbing us economically, physically and our normal life. According to the Scott Forseman, pollution is defined as the addition of any substance of form of energy to the environment at a rate faster than the environment can accommodate it by dispersion, decomposition, recycling or storage in some harmless forms. Our precious earth is daily polluted in a variety of ways such as air pollution, water, soil, chemical, smoke, noise, radioactive, thermal, waste, energy, oil and urban pollution. Pollution began to draw major public attention in the United States between the mid-1950s and early 1970s, when the congress passed the clean air act, clean water act and National Environmental Policy act. (W.A Andrews and D.K Moore).It was the industrial revolution that gave the birth to environmental pollution as we know it today. Growing evidence of local and global pollution and an increasingly informed public over time have given to environmentalism and the environmental movement, which generally seek to limit human impact on the environment. Scientists believe that all cities with populations exceeding 50,000 have some degree of air pollution. In this essay I will show that how human activities are producing pollution which is negatively affecting the whole world and environment and there are also two main solutions for this problem why it needs to be addressed. Pollution is causing by a lots of activities we do every day. Global economic production creates global pollution .Burning fossil fuels to run factories, motorized vehicles and power plants are producing huge amount of pollution everyday. Motor vehicles produce high level of Carbon monoxide (CO) and major source of hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO) which is very harmful for our environment. The other major cause is fertilizers using in the crops, it also creates pollution because it negatively affect the human health, water and the plants. One another type of pollution is oil pollution in the oceans. It is release of liquid petroleum hydrocarbon in the environment due to the human activities.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Proactive and Reactive Cyber Forensics Investigation Process

Proactive and Reactive Cyber Forensics Investigation Process PROACTIVE CYBER FORENSIC ANALYSIS Proactive And reactive cyber forensics investigation processes: A Systematic Literature Review(SLR) A multi-component framework of cyber forensics investigation Abstract—Digital Forensics can be defined as the ensemble of methods, tools and techniques used to collect, preserve and analyze digital data originating from any type of digital media involved in an incident with the purpose of extracting valid evidence for a court of law. In it investigations are usually performed as a response to a digital crime and, as such, they are termed Reactive Digital Forensic (RDF). This involves identifying, preserving, collecting, analyzing, and generating the final report. Although RDF investigations are effective, they are faced with many challenges, especially when dealing with anti-forensic incidents, volatile data and event reconstruction. To tackle these challenges, Proactive Digital Forensic (PDF) is required. By being proactive, DF is prepared for incidents. In fact, the PDF investigation has the ability to proactively collect data, preserve it, detect suspicious events, analyze evidence and report an incident as it occurs. Index Terms—Digital forensics, Digital Proactive Forensics, Digital reactive forensics, Digital device storage, digital crime, Anti forensics, multi component framework Introduction Computer crimes have increased tremendously and their degree of sophistication has also advanced, the volatility and dynamicity of the information that flows between devices require some proactive investigation. The reactive investigation is now becoming less practical since the increased sizes of the data that is being investigated and underlying technology of the devices that change tremendously make the tools made for digital reactive forensics useless In order to investigate anti-forensic attacks and to promote automation of the live investigation, a proactive and reactive functional process has been proposed.. The phases of the proposed proactive and reactive digital forensics investigation process have been mapped to existing investigation processes. The proactive component in the proposed process has been compared to the active component in the multi- component framework. All phases in the proactive component of the new process are meant to be automated. To this end, a theory for the proactive digital forensics is necessary to lay down a strong foundation for the implementation of a reliable proactive system. I. Anti-Forensics The term anti-forensics refers to methods that prevent forensic tools, investigations, and investigators from achieve- ing their goals. Two examples of anti-forensic methods are data overwriting and data hiding. From a digital investigation perspective, anti-forensics can do the following: Prevent evidence collection. Increase the investigation time. Provide misleading evidence that can jeopardize the whole investigation. Prevent detection of digital crime. To investigate crimes that rely on anti-forensic methods, more digital forensic investigation techniques and tools need to be developed, tested, and automated. Such techniques and tools are called proactive forensic processes. Proactive forensics has been suggested in. To date, however, the definition and the process of proactive forensics have not been explicated. II. Proactive digital forensics Proactive Digital Forensic Component has the ability to proactively collect data, preserve it, detect suspicious events, gather evidence, carry out the analysis and build a case against any questionable activities. In addition, an automated report is generated for later use in the reactive component. The evidence gathered in this component is the proactive evidence that relates to a specific event or incident as it occurs. As opposed to the reactive component, the collection phase in this component comes before preservation since no incident has been identified yet. Phases under the proactive component are defined as follows: Proactive Collection: automated live collection of predefined data in the order of volatility and priority, and related to a specific requirement of an organization or incident. Proactive Preservation: automated preservation, via hashing, of the evidence and the proactively collected data related to the suspicious event. Proactive Event Detection: detection of suspicious event via an intrusion detection system or a crime-prevention alert. Proactive Analysis: automated live analysis of the evidence, which might use forensics techniques such as data mining and outlier detection to sup- port and construct the initial hypothesis of the incident. Report: automated report generated from the proactive component analysis. This report is also important for the reactive component and can serve as the starting point of the reactive investigation.[1] III Reactive Digital Forensics It the traditional or post-mortem approach of investigating a digital crime after an incident has occurred. This involves identifying, preserving, collecting, analyzing, and generating the final report. Two types of evidence are gathered under this component: Active: Active evidence refers to collecting all live (dynamic) evidence that exists after an incident. An example of such evidence is processes running in memory. Reactive : refers to collecting all the static evidence remaining, such as an image of a hard drive. Previous Work Proactive Vs Reactive Forensics Investigation framework Complexity of Digital Forensics investigation Digital attacks are so complex that it is hard to investigate them forensically. The elements involved in a digital crime are located in a large multidimensional space and cannot be easily identified. With the increase of storage size and memory sizes, and the use of parallelism, virtualization and cloud, the parameters to take into account during an investigation can even become unmanageable. Five fundamental principles The five fundamental principles are stated below: Principle 1 Consider the entire system. This includes the user space as well as the entire kernel space, file system, network stack, and other related subsystems. Principle 2 Assumptions about expected failures, attacks, and attackers should not control what is logged. Trust no user and trust no policy, as we may not know what we want in advance. Principle 3 Consider the effects of events, not just the actions that caused them, and how those effects may be altered by context and environment. Principle 4 Context assists in interpreting and understanding the meaning of an event. Principle 5 Every action and every result must be processed and presented in a way that can be analyzed and understood by a human forensic analyst. These five are for reactive analysis , for proactive there must be some new principles. Soltan Abed Albari proposed the following two : Principle 6 Preserve the entire history of the system. Principle 7 Perform the analysis and report the results in real time. By preserving the entire history of the system, we can go back in time and reconstruct what has happened and answer reliably all the necessary questions about an event or incident. The reconstructed timeline is based on the actual states of the system before and after the event or incident. In addition and due to the large amount of data, events and actions involved, performing a proactive analysis and reporting require real time techniques that use high-performance computing. The analysis phase should be automated and have the necessary intelligence to investigate the suspicious events in real time and across multiple platforms. Figure 1 Relation between action ,target events[1] In addition to the actions and events that the seven principles listed above emphasize, we introduce the notion of targets. A target is any resource or object related to the system under investigation e.g., a file, memory, register, etc. We will use an element of DF investigation to refer to a target, an action or an event. At a time t and as shown in Figure 3.1, the system is in the process of executing an action that reacts to some targets and events, and produces new targets and events or modifies the existing ones. A model for Proactive digital forensics The model below has two major parts Forward system Feedback system Forward system is the one upon which investigation is performed. Both systems the forward and the feedback can be modelled as a tuple (T,E,A), where T is a set of targets, E is a set of events, and A is a set of possible actions each of which is viewed as a transfer function of targets and events. To clarify this, each target f ∈ T is associated with a set S(f) representing the possible states in which it can be. The Cartesian product of S(f) for all targets f defines the state space of the system’s targets and we denote it by T . We do the same for every event e but we consider S(e) to contain two and only two elements, namely ↑ (triggered event) and ↓ (not triggered event). The Cartesian product of all the system’s events (S(e) for every event e) is denoted by E (status space). An action a is therefore a function from Γ Ãâ€" T Ãâ€" E to T Ãâ€" E, where Γ represents the time dimension. The evolution function ψ is defined from Γ Æ" (T Ãâ€" E) Ãâ€" A to T Ãâ€" E by ψ(t,(~r,~e),a) = a(t,~r,~e)3. At a time t ∈ Γ, an event e is triggered if its status at time t is ↑, and not triggered ↓ otherwise. The notation ↑t e will be used to denote that the event e is triggered at time t Figure 2 proactive model[1] The forward system has three things that are linked. Target, event and action A. Target A target is any resource or object related to the system under investigation (e.g., a file, memory, register, etc.. We will use an element of DF investigation to refer to a target, an action or an event. At a time t system is in the process of executing an action that reacts to some targets and events, and produces new targets and events or modifies the existing ones. Therefore to describe the dynamics of the system at a single instant t, one needs to know at least the states of the targets, the events generated and the actions executed at t. For a full description of the dynamics, these elements of investigation need to be specified at every instant of time; and the complete analysis of the dynamics of the system requires a large multidimensional space Equations B. Events and Actions Keeping track of all events and targets is expensive. To reduce them, a few classifications using preorder and equivalence relations. To illustrate the idea behind these classifications, imagine a botnet writing into a file. This event will trigger other events including checking the permission on the file, updating the access time of the file, and writing the data to the actual disk. The idea behind our formalization is to be able to know which events are important (maximal) and which ones can be ignored. The same thing holds for the targets .This will optimize the cost and time . Short Theory on Events Let e1 and e2 be two events in E. We defined the relation ≠¤E on E as follows: e1 ≠¤E e2 if and only if ( ⇠Ã¢â€¡â€™ ) whenever the event e1 happens at a time t, the event e2 must also happen at a time t0 greater than or equal to t. Formally, this can be expressed as: e1 ≠¤E e2 ⇠Ã¢â€¡â€™ (∀t ↑t e1 ⇒ âˆÆ't0 ≠¥ t ↑t0 e2) Subsequent events are those which are less than e . Short theory on targets Let ÃŽ ¨ be the mapping from T to E (Figure 3.10) that associates each target with its change of status event. The mapping ÃŽ ¨ and ≠¤E induces a preorder relation ≠¤T defined by T1 ≠¤T T2 ⇠Ã¢â€¡â€™ ÃŽ ¨(T1) ≠¤E ÃŽ ¨(T2) Informally, this means that whenever target T1 changes at time t the target T2 must change at t0 ≠¥ t. Short Theory on Actions The set of actions A is extended to  ¯ A using the following operators: An associative binary operator called sequential operator and denoted by ;. Given two actions a1 and a2, the action a1;a2 is semantically equivalent to carrying out a1 and then a2 (the two transfer functions are in series). Note that ∅A is a neutral element of A with respect to ; (i.e., a;∅A = ∅A;a = a for every action a). A commutative binary operator called parallel operator and denoted by ||. In this case a1||a2 is equivalent to carrying a1 and a2 simultaneously (the two transfer functions are in parallel). The action ∅A is also a neutral element of A with respect to ||. A conditional operator defined as follows. Given two conditions ci and ce in C, and an action a, the operator ciace represents the action of iteratively carrying out a only when ci is true and stopping when ce is false. That is denoted by a ce. Note that if both are true, then ci a ce is a. Zone Base Classification of Investigation Space To address the limitation of the classification described previously and address the undesirability issue , classify the event and target state into a set of priority zones. These zones can be represented with different colors: green, yellow, and red; starting from a lower priority to a higher one. When important events/targets with high-priority levels are triggered, a more thorough analysis is expected. Moreover, the zones can be used as a quantifying matrix that provides numbers reà ¯Ã‚ ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡ecting the certainty level for the occurrence of an incident. In our case, this number is an important piece of information in the final report. The high-priority events can involve one of the following: IDS, Antivirus, Firewall off and changing the windows system32 folder. On the other hand, the high-priority targets are the system32 folder, registry, network traà ¯Ã‚ ¬Ã†â€™c and memory dump. Given that the number of targets and events are large, this classification is not enough, especially during the analysis phase. As such, we need to reduce the forensic space. Similar to the principal component analysis technique [59], we suggest restrict- ing the analysis to â€Å"important† targets and events based on a specific organization policy. This can be seen as projecting the full forensic space F onto a sub-space F0 in which the evidence is most probably located. Figure 3 Zone base classification [1] Conclusion In this paper we proposed a new approach to resolve cybercrime using Proactive forensics with focusing on the Investigation space for proactive investigation. This paper reviews literature on Proactive forensic approaches and their processes. It has a method for proactive investigation to be carried out significantly. In order to investigate anti-forensics methods and to promote automation of the live investigation, a proactive functional process has been proposed. The proposed process came as result of SLR of all the processes that exist in literature. The phases of the proposed proactive digital forensics investigation process have been mapped to existing investigation processes. For future work , the investigation space profiling is to be done on events and targets in the space. References Proactive System for Digital Forensic Investigation, Soltan Abed Alharbi, 2014 University of Victoria Mapping Process of Digital Forensic Investigation Framework A new approach for resolving cybercrime in network forensics based on generic process model. Mohammad Rasmi1, Aman Jantan2, Hani Al-MimiY. Yorozu, M. Hirano, K. Oka, and Y. Tagawa, A System for the Proactive, Continuous, and Eà ¯Ã‚ ¬Ã†â€™cient Collection of Digital Forensic Evidence Towards Proactive Computer-System Forensics Requirements-Driven Adaptive Digital Forensics Multi-Perspective Cybercrime Investigation Process Modeling A Forensic Traceability Index in Digital Forensic Investigation Network/Cyber Forensics Smartphone Forensics: A Proactive Investigation Scheme for Evidence Acquisition

Friday, September 20, 2019

Optimal Reactive Power Planning By Using Evolutionary Engineering Essay

Optimal Reactive Power Planning By Using Evolutionary Engineering Essay This paper presents a methodology for solving Optimal Reactive Power Planning (ORPP) problem by using Evolutionary Programming (EP) Optimization Technique in order to improve the voltage stability and minimize the losses in the power system. This study has developed the Evolutionary Programming (EP) Optimization Technique using MATLAB software. The study tested two fitness functions namely total loss minimization and the voltage stability improvement in power system with two different mutation technique. Comparison in the results obtained was made in order to determine the best fitness function and the best mutation technique to be used for solving ORPP and hence the voltage stability is improved. The proposed technique was tested on the IEEE 26 bus reliability test system. Keywords: Optimal Reactive Power Planning (ORPP), Voltage Stability Improvement, Evolutionary Programming (EP) I. INTRODUCTION In general, the problem of optimal reactive power planning (ORPP) can be defined as to determine the amount and location of shunt reactive power compensation devices needed for minimum cost while keeping an adequate voltage profile. The ORPP is one of the most challenging problems since objective functions, the operation cost and the investment cost of new reactive power sources, should be minimized simultaneously [1]. Transmission loss can be minimised by performing reactive power planning which involves optimisation process. The ORPP is a large-scale nonlinear optimization problem with a large number of variables and uncertain parameters. Various mathematical optimization algorithms have been developed for the ORPP, which in most cases; use nonlinear [2], linear [3], or mixed integer programming [4], and decomposition methods [5-8]. However, these conventional techniques are known to converge to a local optimal solution rather than the global one for problems such as ORPP which have many local minima. Recently, evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have been used for optimization; in particular both the genetic algorithm and evo1ution programming have been used in the ORPP problem. The EA is a powerful optimization technique analogous to the natural selection process in genetics. It is useful especially when other optimization methods fail in finding the optimal solution [1]. Evolutionary Programming (EP) optimization technique is recently applied in solving electric power system optimization problems. It is part of the Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) optimization techniques under the artificial intelligence hierarchy. Optimization is an important issue in power system operation and planning particularly in the area of voltage stability studies [9]. In this study, EP engine was initially developed to implement the optimisation process considering two mutation techniques, each with two different objective functions. Comparative studies performed in this study aimed to identify the most suitabl e mutation technique with the best objective function for minimising transmission loss in power system and also improving the voltage stability. The parameters for this problem are: generated reactive power (Qg), injected reactive power (Qinj) and transformer tap (T). Validation on the effectiveness of the proposed technique was conducted on the IEEE-26 reliability test system. Figure 1: The IEEE 26 bus test system II. OBJECTIVES The two objective functions of this study are: To obtain the total loss minimization To improve the voltage stability Where: Total_Loss is total loss minimization LQNmax is voltage stability improvement III. BACKGROUND STUDIES A. Optimal Reactive Power Planning (ORPP) Optimal Reactive Power Planning (ORPP) is a sub-problem of Optimal Power Flow solution which has been widely used in power system operation and planning to determine the optimal control parameter settings, in order to minimize or maximize the desired objective function while satisfying a set of systems constraint. Reactive Power Planning (RPP) involves in optimizing the transformer tap setting, injection of reactive power at generator and load bus so as to fulfill the objective function. Since the OPF approach is commonly concerned with the security and economic operation of the power system, Economic Dispatch (ED) technique is also adopted in RPP scheme. The value of active power generated by the generator is also adjusted in the approach. [11] ORPP is a nonlinear programming problem which has the following mathematical formulation: Maximize or minimize f(x, u) (3) subject to g(x, u) =0 (4) hmin à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ h(x, u) à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¥ hmax (5) where u is the vector of control variables and x is the vector of dependent variables. f(x, u) is the objective function, while g(x, u) is the nodal power constraints with hmin à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ h(x, u) à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¥ hmax are the inequality constraints of the dependent and independent variables. B. Evolutionary Programming (EP) EP is one of the popular techniques which fall under the Evolutionary Computation in Artificial Intelligence (AI) hierarchy and increasingly applied for solving power system optimization problem in recent years. A new population is formed from an existing population through the use of a mutation operator. This operator produces a new solution by perturbing each component of an existing solution by a random amount. The degree of optimality is measured by the fitness, which can be defined as the objective function of the problem [12]. Through the use of a ranking scheme, the candidate solutions in each population were sorted in ascending order according to the number of the best population. The best population form a resultant population is referred as the next generation. The ranking scheme must have more optimal solutions which has a greater chance of survival than the poorer solutions. It is a stochastic optimization strategy, which based on the mechanics of natural selections-mutation, competition and evolution. This technique stressed on the behavioural linkage between parents and their offspring. In general, EP consists of 3 major steps which briefly discussed as follow [12], [13]: i. Initialization The initial population of ÃŽÂ ¼ individuals consists of (xi, ÆÅ ¾i), ˆ¦i à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ {1, 2,à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ÃƒÅ½Ã‚ ¼} are generated randomly based on its limit, whereby xi denotes the control variable and ÆÅ ¾i is the strategic parameter with respect to xi. The fitness is calculated for each individual based on its objective function, f(xi). ii. Mutation a) First Mutation Technique Each parent (xi, ÆÅ ¾i), i=1,à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦, ÃŽÂ ¼, creates a single offspring (xi, ÆÅ ¾i), where xi and ÆÅ ¾i are given by: xi (j) = xi (j) + ÆÅ ¾i (j) Nj (0, 1) (6) ÆÅ ¾i (j) = ÆÅ ¾i (j) exp (à Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ N (0, 1) + à Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ Nj (0, 1)) (7) and à Ã¢â‚¬Å¾ = ((2(n)  ½)  ½)-1 (8) à Ã¢â‚¬Å¾= ((2n)  ½)-1 (9) xi (j), xi'(j), ÆÅ ¾i(j) and ÆÅ ¾i'(j) are the j-th component of the vectors xi, xi, ÆÅ ¾i and ÆÅ ¾i respectively. N(0,1) represents a normally distributed one-dimensional random number with mean zero and standard deviation 1. Nj(0,1) denotes that the random number is generated anew for each value of j. Subsequently, the fitness is calculated for each offspring. b) Proposed Mutation Technique The proposed mutation rule was inspired by neural network back propagation learning. The following three equations are employed for perturbing the parents to generate their offspring: In these equations, xij [k] [k] is the jth variable of an ith individual at the kth generation. The learning rate, ÆÅ ¾, and the momentum rate, ÃŽÂ ±, are real-valued constants that are determined empirically. |.| denotes an absolute value and N represents the normal distribution. Άxij [k] is the amount of change in an individual, which is proportional to the temporal error, and it drives the individual to evolve close to the best individual at the next generation. It may be viewed as a tendency of the other individuals to take after or emulate the best individual in the current generation. sxij [k] is the evolution tendency or momentum of previous evolution. It accumulates evolution information and tends to accelerate convergence when the evolution trajectory is moving in a consistent direction [14]. The best individual is mutated only by the momentum. This expands the exploitation range and increases the possibility for escaping from local minima. acci[k] in (10) is defined as follows. acci[k] = 1; if the current update has improved cost, 0; otherwise. (10) iii. Combination and Selection In combination stage, the union of parents and offspring are ranked in ascending or descending order according to its fitness and purpose of the optimisation. Hence, the top ÃŽÂ ¼ individuals are selected to be parents for the next generation. The process of mutation, combination and selection are repeated until the stopping criterion is met. In this paper, the stopping criterion is taken to be the convergence of fitness value. IV. METHODOLOGY Figure 3 explained the overall methodology for the evolutionary programming optimization technique to solve ORPP. The produced offspring vector must satisfy and consider the constraints as at the initialization. The main concept of EP is the mutation process. Then continues with learning about the MATLAB software and tested the IEEE 26-Bus Test System to observe initial values which are total power loss, initial minimum and maximum voltages and the initial line stability index (LQP LQN). These initial values have been taken by considering the unstable transmission lines in the test system (IEEE 26-BUS). The unstable line means the line stability index value is close to 1.00. The unstable voltage is when the value is not within the range of (0.90à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤Và ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤1.10). Figure 3: The flow chart for the EP optimization technique The EP program was developed and the analysis of the result is tested based on objective function of the project such as minimize total loss and the voltage stability improvement. Then, the program has been run for five times for each type of objective function. Finally, this project has been concluded and the report has been written. A. Development of EP for Optimal Reactive Power Planning The optimal reactive power planning problems has been tested on the IEEE 26 bus test system. The two objective functions tested are: Fitness1 = Total_Loss; Fitness2 = LQNmax; To find the solution of the problem, the parameters d were decided. The parameters were: Reactive Power of Generator Bus Table 1 shows the parameters and size of reactive power of generation bus. There are five generator buses in IEEE 26-bus test system: Bus 2, 3, 4, 5 and 26. The size of each bus is as below. Table 1: Parameters and size of reactive power of generator bus Parameter Bus Size (MVar) Qg2 2 0 to 50 Qg3 3 0 to 40 Qg4 4 0 to 35 Qg5 5 0 to 30 Qg26 26 0 to 20 2. Injected Reactive Power to the Bus Table 2 shows the parameters and size of injected reactive power to the bus. It shows that there is nine buses have been injected by reactive power. The buses are as below. The unit of the injected reactive power is in MVar. Table 2: Parameters and size of injected reactive power to the bus Parameter Bus Size (MVar) C1 1 0 to 9 C4 4 0 to 9 C5 5 0 to 9 C6 6 0 to 9 C9 9 0 to 9 C11 11 0 to 9 C12 12 0 to 9 C15 15 0 to 9 C19 19 0 to 9 3. Transformer Tap at the Transmission Line Table 3 shows the parameters and size of transformer tap at transmission line. It shows that there is seven transformer tap change at transmission line in IEEE 26-bus test system. The size of each transformer tap is (0.9 to 1.2). Table 3: Parameters and size of transformer tap at the transmission line Parameter Line Size (p.u) T1 2-3 0.9 to 1.2 T2 2-13 0.9 to 1.2 T3 3-13 0.9 to 1.2 T4 4-8 0.9 to 1.2 T5 4-12 0.9 to 1.2 T6 6-19 0.9 to 1.2 T7 7-9 0.9 to 1.2 The EP process is initialization, mutation, rank and selection and convergence test. 4.1.1 Initialization Initial population of size 20 is formed by a set of randomly generated actual value. Each member is tested using equation (12) (17) as below. Equations (12) (16) are the generation constraints. The bus voltage limits in equation (17) are stated in order to avoid any violation to the system operation. The total loss limit in equation (18) is stated in order to avoid the losses greater than the initial values. 0MVar à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ Qg2 à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ 50MVar (12) 0MVar à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ Qg3 à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ 40MVar (13) 0MVar à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ Qg4 à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ 35MVar (14) 0MVar à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ Qg5 à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ 30MVar (15) 0MVar à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ Qg26 à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ 20MVar (16) 0.90V à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬ Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Và ¢Ã¢â‚¬ Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ 1.10V (17) Total Losses à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¤ 16 (18) The generated random numbers must be smaller than the initial solution set in order to make sure that fitness will be improved. Only the member that satisfy the constraints are included in the initial population set. 4.1.2 Mutation Mutation is a method to execute the random number to produce offspring. An offspring vector Li is created from each parent vector by adding Gaussian random with zero mean and standard deviation. 4.1.3 Rank and Selection The offspring populations generated form mutation process is merged with the parent populations. The selection process is to generate a new 20 populations based on the objective function of total losses minimization and the voltage stability improvement. All of members were sorted in ascending order to produce the best twenty or the strongest twenty populations for next generation. 4.1.4 Convergence test The stopping criteria in order to obtain the optimal solution are by looking at the difference in maximum fitness and minimum fitness which must less then certain values. If not achieved, the process will be repeated until it converged. Where: Total_Lossmax- Total_Lossmin LQNmax LQNmin V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION An EP optimization technique has been developed in this study and tested on IEEE 26-bus test system. The objective function is to minimize the total power loss and to improve the voltage stability in power system. The program has been developed to find the optimal value of control variables based on each objective functions. However, before this program was run, load flow solution for the IEEE 26-bus test system was obtained to determine the initial values. The initial total power loss and stability index is 18.986 MW and 0.754 respectively. For each objective function the program was run five times and the results were tabulated in tables according to the objective function. Then the best result for each objective function was selected and tabulated in Table 1 in the Appendix A in order to make a comparison between the two objective functions. According to the result which tabulated in Table 1 in the Appendix A, it was found that EP optimization technique with voltage stability improvement as the objective function give the best result which is total power loss of 14.462 MW and stability index of 0.717. The EP optimization technique with total power loss minimization as the objective function give results 14.987 MW. The EP optimization technique using proposed mutation rule with voltage stability improvement as objective function, the result MW and for the total power loss and stability index respectively. According Table 4, the total power loss and stability index is 15.534 MW and 0.734 respectively. The result after solve the Optimal Reactive Power Planning (ORPP) is 13.019 MW and 0.699. The percentage reduction for total power loss and stability index after solves the ORPP is 16.19 % and 4.77 %. Table 4: Comparison results before and after solves the Optimal Reactive Power Planning Terms Before Solve ORPP After Solve ORPP Total Power Loss (MW) 15.534 13.019 Stability Index, LQNmax 0.734 0.699 VI. CONCLUSION An evolutionary programming optimization technique has been developed to optimize the real power of generator bus, the reactive power and transformer tap control variables for minimal total cost of generation, total power loss and voltage stability improvement. In this paper, the total cost minimization is the best objective function for minimization of total cost, total power loss and stability index is reduced. The percentage reduction for the total cost and total power loss is acceptable. The percentage reduction of stability index is the highest. The percentage reduces for the total cost, total power loss and stability index is 7.77 %, 16.19 % and 4.77 % respectively. This is the acceptable and reasonable percentage reduction as compared to other objective functions. Therefore voltage stability improvement may not have to be the objective function in order to improve the voltage stability condition of a power system in solving the OPF. VII. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT For future development, the other optimization techniques are proposed to be implemented in solving the ORPP in order to minimize the total power system losses and especially to improve the voltage stability in larger power system. Further modification should be included to get more accurate results for example using different mutation rules and selection strategies. VIII. REFERENCES [1] Kwang. Y. Lee and Frank F. Yang Department of Electrical Engineering The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802, Optimal Reactive Power Planning Using Evolutionalry Algorithms: A Comparative Study for Evolutionary Programming, Evolutionary Strategy, Genetic Algorithm, and Linear Programming; IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 13, No. 1, February 1998 [2] R. Billington and S. S. Sachdev, Optimum network VAR planning by nonlinear programming IEEE Trans. on Power Appar. and Syst., Vol. PAS-92, pp. 6 [3] T. Heydt and W. M. Grady, Optimal Var siting using linear load flow formulation, IEEE Trans. on Power Appar. and Syst., pp. 1214-1222. Vol. PAS-102, No. 5, May 1983. [3] K. Aoki, M. Fan, and A. Nishkori, Optimal Var planning by approximation method for recursive mixed integer linear planning, IEEE Trans. on Power Syst.,Vol. PWRS-3, No. 4, pp. 1741-1747, November 1988. [4] K. Y. Lee, Y. M. Park, and J. L. Oritz, A united approach to optimal real and reactive power dispatch, IEEE Trans. on Power Appar. and Syst., Vol. PAS-104, pp. 1147-1153, May 1985. [SI K. Y. Lee, J. L. Ortiz, Y. M. Park, andL. G. Pond, An optimization technique for reactive power planning of subtransmission network under normal operation, IEEE Trans. on Power Syst., Vol. PWRS-1, pp. 153-159, May 1986. [6] M. K. Mangoli, K. Y. Lee, and Y. M. Park, Operational real and reactive power control using linear programming, Electric Power Systems Research,[7] M. K. Mangoli, K. Y. Lee, andY. M. Park, Optimal long-term reactive power planning using decomposition techniques, Electric Power System Research, Vol. 26, Rana Mukerji, Wendell Neugebauer, Richard P. Ludorf and Armand Catelli, Evaluation of Wheeling and Non-Utility Generation (NUG) Options using Optimal Power Flows, IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, Vol. 7, No. 1, February 1992. [3] Kessel and Glavitsch> Estimating the Voltage Stability of a Power System, IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, Vol. PWRD-1, NO. 3, July 1986, pp 346-352. [4] Jason Yuryevich and Kit Po Wong, Evolutionary Programming Based Optimal Power Flow Algorithm, IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, Vol. 14, No. 4, November 1999, pp 1245-1250. [5] A.M. Chebbo, M.R. Irving. M.J.H Collapse Proximity Indicator: Behaviour and Implications, IEE Proceedings -C, Vol. 139, No. 3, May 1992. [6] Mahmoud Moghavvemi, New Method for Indicating Voltage Stability Condition in Power System, Proceedings of IEE International Power Engineering Conference, IPEC97, Singapore, pp. 223-227. [7] Jason Yuryevich, Student Member IEEE, Evolutionary Programming Based Optimal Power Flow Algorithm, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 14, No. 4, November 1999. [8] Salami, M. and Cain, G., Multiple Genetic Algorithm Processor for The Economic Power Dispatch Problem, Proceeding of the genetic algorithm in engineering systems: Innovations and Applications, Conference Publication No. 414, IEE, 1995, pp 188-193. [9] I Musirin and T K Abdul Rahman, On-Line Voltage Stability Index for Voltage Collapse Prediction in Power System, presented at Brunei International Conference on Engineering and Technology 2001 (BICET2001), Brunei. October 2001. [10] Toro, V.D., Electric Power System, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1992. [11] Whats Evolutionary Programming, [12] Leandro Nunes de Castro and Fernando Jose Von Zuben, Artificial Immune System:Part 1- Basic Theory and Applications, Technical report TR-DCA 01/99. 1999. [13] Slobodan Pajic, Dr Kevin A. Clements, Dr. Paul W. Davis and Dr Alexander E. Emanuel, Sequential Quadratic Programming Base Contingency Constraint Optimal Power Flow, Degree of Master of Science in Electrical and Computer Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, April, 29 2003. [14] Fogel , D.B. : A comparison of evolutionary programming and genetic algorithms on selected constrained optimization problems, Simulation, June,1995,pp.397-404. [15] Yao, X., Liu, Y. and Lin, G., (1999) Evolutionary programming made faster, IEEE Trans. Evolutionary Computation. vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 82-102. [16] Miller, R.H. and Malinnowski, J.H., Power System Operation, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994. Appendix A Table 1: Results of EP Optimization Technique Objective Function Control Variables/ Parameters of OPF Total Cost ($/h) Total Power Loss (MW) Stability Index, LQNmax Time Taken (s) Real Power of Generator Bus (MW) Injected Reactive Power (Mvar) Transformer Tap (p.u) Pg2 Pg3 Pg4 Pg5 Pg26 C1 C4 C5 C6 C9 C11 C12 C15 C19 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Total Power Loss Minimization 163.12 281.14 146.07 147.94 92.11 5.95 4.79 0.39 5.39 5.23 1.40 4.23 5.43 3.83 0.96 0.99 1.04 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.91 15449.1 12.132 0.767 11843 Voltage Stability Improvement 110.35 287.28 128.95 163.42 97.14 1.24 1.28 2.36 1.05 2.58 0.76 4.50 2.19 2.39 0.94 1.00 0.96 1.11 1.05 0.90 0.98 15523.1 14.461 0.713 6358

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Eugene Richards :: essays research papers

A freelance photographer, writer and a teacher, Eugene Richards is a storyteller of the common people. Twice named U.S. magazine photographer of the year, he is often considered one of the world’s best documentary photographers for his hard hitting explorations of our society. Richards currently works with Time Life, national history and the New York Times and is the author of nine books including â€Å"below the line†, â€Å"American we† and â€Å"the knife and gun club†. All in which he uses a combination of photograph and elegantly written narrative to show an idiosyncratic portrait of the American people. Richards focus is that of the ignored; a people that otherwise have been forgotten. It’s his compassion to his subjects and his commitment to them that surpasses the act of making a pretty picture. Spending days with his subjects in the slums of Harlem or the hardly developed mountains of West Virginia he immerses himself into the frequently bitter life of his next award-winning photo. Often including word for word text of testimonials recorded by junkies and destitute farmers, Richards is able to provide an unbiased portrayal. All he has done is to select and make us look at the faces of the ignored, opinions and reactions are left to be made by the viewer. Have you ever been at the beach safely shielded by a dark pair of sunglasses and just watched? Being a silent third party to a father screaming at his seven-year-old daughter for putting the inner tube in the wrong place. People watching has for a long time been one of my favorite activities as third party you are able to see people for what they are, unbiased by already having known the person. Eugene Richards’s book has made me look at my hobby from an artistic vantagepoint. He’s made me start to think that one day I would like to be one behind a telephoto lens capturing those moments that people don’t think anyone else saw. Richards photographs have made me relies that photography is more then a point a shoot process.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Plath - A Rebuttal of the Feminist Label :: Biography Biographies Essays

Plath - A Rebuttal of the "Feminist" Label  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚   Sylvia Plath has long been hailed as a feminist writer of great significance. In her 1976 book Literary Women, Ellen Moers writes, "No writer has meant more to the current feminist movement" (qtd. in Wagner 5), and still today, at a time when the idea of equality for women isn't so radically revolutionary as it had been earlier in the century, Plath is a literary symbol of the women's rights movement. Roberta Mazzenti quotes Robert A. Piazza as writing that there is "little feminist consciousness" in Plath's work, and goes on to explain that because "Plath's work [is] being read... by readers searching for political sustenance", feminist sentiment that the author never held can easily be attributed to her writing (201). This kind of misguided attribution is illustrated in the opinions of critics like Sheryl Meyering, who states that Sylvia Plath's intense desire to be accepted by men and to eventually marry and have children was purely a product of the constrictive 1950s soc ial mentality during which the author came to womanhood (xi). A thorough examination of the Plath oeuvre paints a different picture, however. Although Plath's awareness of and distaste for the submissive and insubstantial role a woman in the 1950s was expected to play is apparent from her early journals to the poems completed in the last month of her life, that same body of work also makes plain that she had accepted some of that role for herself on her own terms: a common theme throughout the writing is the author's intense desire to be a beloved and loving wife and, perhaps even more strong, her desire to become a mother--as long as she could still speak from within her "deeper self" through her writing. In 1953, at age 20, Plath wrote in her journal: I must find a strong potential powerful mate who can counter my vibrant dynamic self: sexual and intellectual, and while comradely, I must admire him: respect and admiration must equate with the object of my love (that is where the remnants of paternal, godlike qualities come in). (Journals, 73) Here, the reader finds no hint of misandrist resistance to the idea of a strong attachment to a mate. Indeed, it seems obvious that Plath was searching for an equal to accompany her through all the aspects of a multifaceted life.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Plan For Development Of Human Capital

The staff development and leadership training models and programs of Clark County School District includes various aspects like Specific goals for student achievement, Time-bound goals for student achievement, Strong, internal evaluation practices and Time and Opportunity. (Wiedemann, 2006, 6) But from the perspective of modern Human Resource and development there are still rooms for improvements. The main aim of an able leader is to produce confident, independent learners and support staffs thorough a capacity for self assessment.The first of these factors deals with spiritual dimension of the leaders in the context and perception of their students and support staffs. The second factor deals with physical dimension where the focus is mainly laid down on the classroom environment. The third factor is the instructional dimension where the teaching skills of the teachers are taken into consideration. Lastly there is the factor of managerial dimension which is focused on dealing with ad dressing student behavior. (Finnis, 2003)To maintain standards in educational tolerance and sensitivity, we must learn about each student individually. This would be for their benefit to not only realize their goals and aspirations but to know their potential limitations and help them in the discovery of methods toward surpassing those limitations in order to gain access to their aspirations. Professors must also provide the students the outside methods toward attaining confidence in their ability to learn new skills in forwarding their education.Consistent teaching and learning is managed in order to improve attainment resources for teaching and learning in the form of revision guides, coursework help, lesson plans, worksheets, tasks and links to other sites. (Zimmerman, 2002) This has often resulted in improved consistency in teaching and would also have enabled students’ access to useful materials encouraging independent learning. It should also be mentioned that Leaders a nd the aspect of leadership must be efficient and intelligent.Let us take the example of Peters and Waterman, who in â€Å"In Search of Excellence† thought of â€Å"being visible† and â€Å"management by walkabout†. The dexterity and expertise of managers should support the endeavours of the Staffs. Staffs should feel that they are guided by the managers in perusing their duties. By sound management techniques the ambitions of participative leadership and the human relations school can be achieved. (Wright, 2004)In general it can be stated that strategies followed by the school are to EXPAND its student and staff base and enhance the moral by pursuing multimedia opportunities, DELIVER an award-winning level of excellence, building public interest, trust and pride, PROVIDE vigorous leadership and support in the institution, INSTILL an environment of internal and external excellence in customer service, EMPOWER and recognize each staff's unique contribution, ACHIE VE the highest standards of quality, IMPROVE motivation strength and thus build up a considerable level of human capital.  (Berkowitz, 2000)In conclusion it should be the main aim to produce confident, independent learners thorough a capacity for self assessment. In this manner gaining independence in their education and the capacity to achieve will further their aspirations toward higher goals.Providing a baseline for their understanding and ability to interact with them and then first ascertaining their learning level prior to assigning the individual goals as well as the overall goals for each individual student is an important step toward gaining understanding and the capacity for learning. Taking the steps outlined in the Classroom Strategy and adapting them to the differentials provided by the learning styles of each student is an important aspect for consideration and would in fact manage to be one of the goals set to achieve as a teacher. (Manning, 2003) References: Berkowitz L; (2000); Leadership and Implementations: Findings and Enactment. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Finnis, J. 2003. Fundamentals of Leadership; Georgetown University Press Manning, Schissler Susan. (2003). Ethical Leadership in Human Services: A Multi-Dimensional Approach, New York: Allyn and Bacon. Wiedemann, Denise; 2006; District School Improvement – Amao Plan; Clark County School District; Las Vegas: Nevada; retrieved on 28.06.2007 from Wright, Robert; 2004; The Moral Animal: why we are the way we are. Little, Brown & Co Zimmerman, S; (2002); Introduction to Management Principals; National Book Trust